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Music Man Kids - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Meredith Willson Music and Lyrics by Meredith Willson Based on a story by Meredith Willson and Franklin Lacey. Overview / Synopsis Based on Meredith Willson's six-time-Tony-Award-winning musical comedy, The Music Man KIDS features some of musical theatre's most iconic songs and a story filled with wit, warmth and good old-fashioned romance. The Music Man KIDS is family entertainment at its best � a bold, brassy show that will have the whole town atwitter! Master showman Harold Hill is in town and he's got "seventy-six trombones" in tow. Can upright, uptight Marian, the town librarian, resist his powerful allure? The story follows fast-talking traveling salesman, Harold Hill, as he cons the people of River City, Iowa, into buying instruments and uniforms for a boys' band he vows to organize. The catch? He doesn't know a trombone from a treble clef. His plans to skip town with the cash are foiled when he falls for Marian, whose belief in Harold's power just might help him succeed in the end in spite of himself. The Music Man KIDS is the perfect vehicle for your young cast, a toe-tapping crowd-pleaser, featuring a soaring soprano ing�nue part and a leading role for a charismatic actor, as well as plenty of roles for kids of every level. Audio Sampler - HL00118347 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00118337 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 1 - Accompaniment and Guide Vocal CD 1 - Choreography DVD 1 - Director's Guide 1 - Media Disk 1 - Piano Vocal Score 30 - Student Books 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 00118338 - Director's Guide $100.00 00118339 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00118340 - Actor's Script $10.00 00118341 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00118342 - Perf/Accomp CD pack $75.00 00118343 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00118344 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00118345 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00118346 - Media Disc $10.00 Hear A Sample Rock Island [Salesmen, Charlie] Iowa Stubborn [Townspeople] Ya Got Trouble (Part 1) [Harold, Townspeople] Ya Got Trouble (Part 2) [Harold, Townspeople] Piano Lesson [Marian, Mrs. Paroo, Amaryllis] Goodnight, My Someone [Marian, Mrs. Paroo, Amaryllis] Seventy-Six Trombones [Harold, Townspeople] Pick-a-Little, Talk-a-Little [Alma, Ethel, Maud, Mrs. Squires, Eulalie] The Wells Fargo Wagon [Townspeople, Winthrop] Shipoopi [Marcellus, Kids] Gary, Indiana [Winthrop, Mrs. Paroo, Marian] Bows [Cast] Harold Hill Harold Hill is a huge role and the essence of The Music Man KIDS. Cast an actor who has charisma and charm and is not afraid to take a positive risk onstage. He should be a good singer and mover and also have excellent acting chops. It is ideal if he has an excellent sense of rhythm. Your harold should pair up well with Marian, and the two together should exude a spark of excitement. Gender: Male Vocal Range: B3-G5 Marian Paroo Marian Paroo begins as an uptight librarian and transforms into a beautiful, trusting young woman. Marian should be a strong singer and actor, and also be able to move well. She must have an air of cofidence that draws Harold to her. Take some time during auditions to try different pairs of Harolds and Marians together until you reach the perfect combination. Gender: Female Vocal Range: G3-G5 Charlie Cowell Charlie Cowell is a Traveling Salesman, and is one of the premium acting-only roles in The Music Man KIDS. If you decide to have the actor playing Charlie also perform in the ensemble, take note to make sure he is not playing Charlie in those scenes. Cast a strong actor with a loud voice. Charlie should have a sense of confidence and love being onstage! Gender: Male Mayor Shinn Mayor Shinn should be able to perform his role as proud politician very seriously, yet have a sense of comic timing. This actor does not have to sung or dance, but is responsible for a great deal of pacing and line pick-ups in the show. Don't be afraid to cast a physically small acotr in this role, provided he can authoritative - it can bring down the house! Gender: Male Eulalie Mackecknie Shinn Eulalie Mackecknie Shinn is a great role for a comic actress! If Eulalie takes herself seriously your audience will find her hysterical. She does have some singing and some moving, but creating a "larger than life" character that works with your Mayor Shinn is essential. Consider contrasting your physically small Mayor Shinn with a tall Eulalie for even more comic brilliance. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D4-D5 Marcellus Washburn Marcellus Washburn is the classic sidekick to Harold. His big number is "Shipoopi," so he should be a good singer, a great actor and be able to dance. Cast a kid who is natually funny and you will have a terrific Marcellus. Gender: Male Vocal Range: E4-D#5 Mrs. Paroo Mrs. Paroo is a good mother, stands up for what she beieves and gently pushes Marian to think of her future. The role requires an actress who can sing and act. However, she deosnt need to have a polished voice - the more character the better! Take into consideration your actress's ability to look maternal with Winthrop and Marian. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Ab3-Eb5 Winthrop Paroo Winthrop Paroo is Marian's shy younger brother who hardly talks because of his pronounced lisp. This is a great role for a young performer who is a good actor. Winthrop transforms from shy to outspoken, and not only sings but dances! Gender: Male Vocal Range: C4-Eb5 Amaryllis Amaryllis is Marian's slightly bratty, young piano student who has a crush on Winthrop. This is a great place to feature a young actor who is not quite ready for a large part, or who doesn't have a strong singing voice. Cast a girl who is a good actor and similar in size to Winthrop and Gracie. Gender: Female Tommy Djilas Tommy Djilas is the teen heartthrob in the show and a non-singing role. Cast a boy that can dance and create a strong character. Tommy's love interest is Zaneeta, so make sure the two characters have chemistry between them. Gender: Male Zaneeta Shinn Zaneeta Shinn is the oldest and slightly daffy daughter of the Mayor and Eulalie. Cast a girl who is a strong dancer. Although this is a non-singing role, a well-ast Zaneeta will gain mileage out of her classic "Ye gads!" line. Gender: Female Gracie Shinn Gracie Shinn is Zaneeta's little sister and the youngest daughter of the Mayor and Eulalie. The actor has few lines of dialogue, and if she is a good singer, she would be a fine choice to sing the first solo in "The Wells Fargo Wagon." Gender: Female Vocal Range: B3-Eb5 Ethel Toffelmier Ethel Toffelmier is Marcellus's girlfriend. She's described by Marcellus as "a nice comfortable girl and the bosses' niece." Ethel has some acting, some singing, and some dancing. Ethel is also one of the solo Pick-a-Little ladies. Make sure she and Marcellus look good together, think Ethel and Fred from I Love Lucy! Gender: Female Vocal Range: D4-D5 Pick-a-little Ladies Pick-a-little Ladies Alma Hix, Maud Dunlop and Mrs. Squires are the gossip queens of River City. These characters need to act, sing and move well. Cast girls with strong voices and a good sense of cominc timing. The supplemental Pick-A-Little ladies are ideal parts for your abundance of girls. Gender: Female Conductor The Conductor has the first line in The Music Man KIDS. This is a non-singing role and perfect for an actor that can be loud and energetic but is not quite ready for a larger part. Gender: Both Constable Locke Constable Locke is River City's chief law enforcement officer. He is a quiet, wise man who sees through Harold, yet doesn't seem to take Harold's antics too seriously. No singing or dancing is required for this role. Gender: Both Townspeople The River City Townspeople are the heart and soul of The Music Man KIDS. The story is about a community of people so assigning your cast into family units is key. Ask each grouping to create a family history, including details of their lives. This will create an ensemble that is engaged and energized. Plan on separating your cast into three groups: aduts, teens and kids. You will immediately recognize that some actors clearly "read" as adults onstage. Try to separate your groups into categories to create a realistic town. Gender: Both Traveling Salesmen The Traveling Salesmen are non-singing roles suited for performers that have a strong rhythmic sense. "Rock Island" is te rap of its time! If you find you need to cast girls as Traveling Salesmen, make sure they play the roles as men. These actors can ouble as ault members of the River City Townspeople. You will need a minimum of five salesmen in addition to Charlie. Gender: Both Wan Tan Ye Girls The Wan Tan Ye Girls are featured during Eulalie's "Spectacle" in Scene 4 prior to "76 Trombones." Cast students who aren't afraid of acting silly. Gender: Female Boys' Band All of your little boys can be in the Boys' Band if you have enough uniforms. If you need to fill out this Boys' Band ensemble with girls, be sure they appear as boys in uniform. Gender: Both
Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Words and Music by Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley Adapted for the Stage by Leslie Bricusse and Timothy A McDonald Based on the Book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory By Roald Dahl Overview / Synopsis Roald Dahl's timeless story of the world-famous candy man and his quest to find an heir comes to life in this stage adaptation of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. With a flexible cast size, a tour-de-force role for the title character, songs from the film classic and some clever new additions, Willy Wonka Junior runs 60-70 minutes and will delight performers and audiences alike! Songs include: Pure Imagination; Golden Age of Chocolate; The Candy Man; I Eat More; Think Positive; I See It All On TV; Cheer Up, Charlie; (I've Got a) Golden Ticket; At The Gates; In This Room Here; Oompa-Loompa-Doompadee-Doo; There's No Knowing; Chew It; I Want It Now!; Finale; and more! Audio Sampler - HL00255623 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00255629 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets Production Handbook Cross-Curricular Book 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00255611 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00255609 - Director's Guide $100.00 00255612 - Libretto/Vocal Book $10.00 00255613 - Libretto/Vocal Book 10 Pak $75.00 00190461 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00255619 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00255620 - Media Disk $10.00 00255615 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00255617 - Student Rehearsal CDs 20 Pak $100.00 00255623 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Prologue Pure Imagination [Wonka] Golden Age of Chocolate [Oompas, Wonka, All] SCENE 2 The Candy Man [Candy Man, James, Charlie, Matilda] SCENE 5 I Eat More [Mrs. Gloop, Augustus, Phineous] SCENE 7 Think Positive [Charlie, Mrs. Bucket, Mr. Bucket] SCENE 10 I See It All on TV [Mike, Ms. Teavee] SCENE 11 Cheer Up, Charlie [Grandpa Joe, Mrs.Bucket, Mr. Bucket] SCENE 12 Think Positive (Reprise) [Charlie] (I've Got a) Golden Ticket [Charlie, Grandpa Joe, Mr. Bucket, Golden Ticket Winners] SCENE 13 At the Gates [Wonka] In this Room Here [All] Factory Reveal Sequence [Wonka, Kids & Parents] SCENE 14 Oompa-Loompa 1 [Oompas, Augustus, All] SCENE 15 There's No Knowing [Wonka, Mr. Salt, Mrs. Beauregarde, Grandpa Joe] SCENE 16 Chew It [Violet, Mike, Veruca, Charlie, All] Oompa-Loompa 2 [Oompas, Augustus, Violet, All] SCENE 17 Flying [Charlie, Grandpa Joe] Burping Song [Charlie, Grandpa Joe] SCENE 18 I Want It Now [Veruca] Oompa-Loompa 3 [Oompas, Veruca, All] SCENE 19 Oompa-Loompa 4 [All, Mike] SCENE 20 Finale [All] Willy Wonka Willy Wonka is an enigmatic character; at once mysterious and mischievous but also charismatic. There are a number of directions to take with Wonka, ranging from Gene Wilder's version in the original film, Willy Wonka and The Chocolate Factory, to Johnny Depp's portrayal in the recent film, Charlie and The Chocolate Factory, and everything in between. Pick a young man (or a young woman) who is charismatic, engaging and has a great voice (in the case of a young man, preferably a changed voice). The actor should be able to be funny and serious and change between the two on a dime. It is preferred that Wonka double as the Candy Man, as it helps reinforce that Wonka has staged the Golden Ticket competition and is somewhat controlling this contest along the way. Charlie Bucket The role of Charlie Bucket is the emotional heart and soul of the musical. The actor performing Charlie should have an unchanged voice and lots of pluck and enthusiasm. Think a male "Annie." Charlie is in nearly every scene, so make sure you select an actor who can handle the demands of a sizable role. Grandpa Joe Grandpa Joe is the grandfather we all wish we had when we were Charlie's age. He is caring, patient, sweet and always reminds Charlie to remain cheerful. Cast an actor who can be kind and funny. The role sings a bit, but the singing is secondary. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket Mr. and Mrs. Bucket are great roles for young people who have nice voices, and are natural nurturers. Both sing solos; Mr. Bucket performs the number "Think Positive" with Charlie and Mrs. Bucket sings "Cheer Up, Charlie" with Mr. Bucket and Grandpa Joe. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Phineous Trout Phineous Trout is the reporter who announces the winners of the Golden Ticket contest throughout the show. The role requires some singing, and can be doubled by Wonka or played by another actor. In addition, either a boy or a girl can play the role. The Oompa-Loompa Chorus The Oompa-Loompa Chorus can be as small as a handful of performers or as large as your stage and theater can accommodate. Consider casting your youngest performers as Oompa-Loompas (like the sixth grade chorus) and augment them with a handful of older students who can take the lead and serve as Oompa-Loompa wranglers. Augustus Gloop Augustus Gloop is the overachieving eater who represents the evils of eating too much. Be extremely sensitive in casting this role as it is tempting to cast an overweight young person and that can be scarring-especially if the child struggles with this issue. Consider casting a thin child and creating the illusion of size via the costume. Either a boy or a girl acting like a boy can play Augustus. Augustus sings "I Eat More!" along with his mother and Phineous Trout. The song is on the difficult side, but does not need to be sung with a polished pretty voice, in fact, the more character the better. Mrs. Gloop Mrs. Gloop is Augustus' mother who has overindulged her son with food. She accompanies Augustus on the tour of the factory, and sings "I Eat More!" which is one of the more difficult songs in the score for young people. The role requires a character actress who isn't afraid to take positive risks both in her acting and her singing. Mike Teavee For this adaptation Mike Teavee is not just a TV junky. He is also addicted to video games, the Internet and any other mindnumbing technological device. Mike is bratty, loud and obnoxious. He does not know the word "no." Mike and Ms. Teavee sing "I See It All On TV" so he should be a reasonable singer, but does not need to be phenomenal. Mike could also be portrayed by a girl playing a boy, but generally works best with a male actor. Ms. Teavee Ms. Teavee is a take on all television moms of the distant past. Think June Cleaver (Leave it to Beaver) or Marion Cunningham (Happy Days) or even Carol Brady (The Brady Bunch). She's perfectly put together and a bit vacant. She sings "I See It All On TV" but does not require a polished voice. Violet Beauregarde Gum chewer extraordinaire, Violet Beauregarde hails from Snellville, Georgia, so it's nice if she has a Southern American accent, but not necessary. Violet should stand in stark contrast to Veruca Salt. Veruca is a wealthy refined brat; Violet is more of a bluecollar, middle class brat. She sings "Chew It" along with Willy Wonka. The song is a tour-de-force for the right voice, so cast a young lady with strong voice. Veruca Salt Veruca Salt is the wealthy, class-conscious, spoiled brat. She is often portrayed with a high British accent that is by no means required (brats come in all nationalities). Veruca's solo number "I Want It Now" is deceptively tricky and comes late in the show, so select a young woman with a strong voice. Veruca should contrast sharply with Violet Beauregarde in terms of look and physical type. Grandma Josephina, Grandma Georgina and Grandpa George Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. James James is Charlie's friend from school. He has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with Matilda and Charlie. Matilda Matilda is also a schoolmate of Charlie's, but she's a bit of bully. Matilda has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with James and Charlie. The Candy Man The Candy Man Kids sing "The Candy Man" and their numbers may be expanded as you see fit and your program will allow. The names of the characters have been drawn from other Roald Dahl books. Feel free to assign additional names to match the number of performers you cast. (All students like to go home and exclaim "I'm playing Alfie in Willy Wonka JR." versus "I'm just Kid 2 in 'The Candy Man.'") You may also cast a single class (say the sixth grade chorus) to perform these roles, as they appear only in this number unless you choose to double them as Cooks and Oompa-Loompas. Mrs. Beauregarde Mrs. Beauregarde is a teacher of geography and has invested a great deal of hard-earned money on therapy for her orally fixated daughter, with less than stellar results. The role is virtually non-singing. Her accent should match Violet's. Mr. Salt Mr. Salt's solution to most problems is to buy his way out. He is upper class, and usually portrayed with a high British accent. (But this accent is not necessary-just make sure Veruca and Mr. Salt sound like they hail from the same place.) He sings very little. A female actress playing male may also play the role. Chorus of Cooks Chorus of Cooks is an optional chorus. The Cooks appear during "I Eat More!" presenting Augustus with a smorgasbord of food choices. (Check out the Director's Guide note in the song for more information.) Double the Candy Man Kids Chorus and Oompa-Loompa Chorus or cast a single class of kids to perform this section. (For example, Mrs. Ripley's third grade class.) The Squirrels The Squirrels are non-speaking, non-singing roles and you can cast as many as necessary. This is a great part for beginning actors.
Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka Kids - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Words and Music by Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley Adapted for the Stage by Leslie Bricusse and Timothy A. McDonald Based on the book: "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" By Roald Dahl Overview / Synopsis The delicious adventures experienced by Charlie Bucket on his visit to Willy Wonka's mysterious chocolate factory light up the stage in this captivating adaptation of Roald Dahl's fantastical tale. Featuring the enchanting songs from the 1971 film starring Gene Wilder, in addition to a host of fun new songs, Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS is a scrumdidilyumptious musical guaranteed to delight everyone's sweet tooth. Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS follows enigmatic candy manufacturer Willy Wonka as he stages a contest by hiding golden tickets in five of his scrumptious candy bars. Whomever comes up with these tickets will win a free tour of the Wonka factory, as well as a lifetime supply of candy. Four of the five winning children are insufferable brats, but the fifth is a likeable young lad named Charlie Bucket, who takes the tour in the company of his equally amiable grandfather. The children must learn to follow Mr. Wonka's rules in the factory - or suffer the consequences. Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS has a flexible cast size with many featured and ensemble roles, including the singing and dancing Oompa-Loompas. Audio Sampler - HL01149056 $10.00 ShowKit - HL01149057 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Student Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Rehearsal/Accompaniment CD Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 01149053 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 01149052 - Director's Guide $100.00 01149054 - Libretto/Vocal Score $10.00 01149055 - Libretto/Vocal Score 10-Pak $75.00 01146056 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample The Candy Man Golden Age of Chocolate At the Gates (Pure Imagination) Factory Reveal Sequence Oompa-Loompa 2 Oompa-Loompa 3 Burping Song Oompa-Loompa 4 (I've Got a) Golden Ticket Oompa-Loompa 1 I Want It Now! Bows Cast of Characters Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers) Cast Type: Children Dance Requirements: Standard Grandma Josephina Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Grandma Georgina Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Grandpa George Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Male The Candy Man Kids Sophie, Danny, Alfie, Billie and additional kids as needed are The Candy Man Kids. These kids sing "The Candy Man" and their numbers may be expanded as you see fit and your program will allow. The names of the characters have been drawn from other Roald Dahl books. Feel free to assign additional names to match the number of performers you cast. All students like to go home and exclaim "I'm playing Alfie" versus "I'm just Kid 2 in 'The Candy Man.'") You may also cast a single class (say the sixth grade chorus) to perform these roles, as they appear only in this number unless you choose to double them as Cooks and Oompa-Loompas. Gender: Any Oompa-Loompa Chorus The Oompa-Loompa Chorus can be as small as a handful of performers or as large as your stage and theater can accommodate. Consider casting your youngest performers as Oompa-Loompas and augment them with a handful of older students who can take the lead and serve as Oompa-Loompa wranglers. Gender: Any Willy Wonka / Candy Man Willy Wonka is an enigmatic character; at once mysterious and mischievous but also charismatic. There are a number of directions to take with Wonka, ranging from Gene Wilder's version in the original film, Willy Wonka and The Chocolate Factory, to Johnny Depp's portrayal in the recent film, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and everything in between. Pick a young man (or a young woman) who is charismatic, engaging and has a great voice (in the case of a young man, preferably a changed voice). The actor should be able to be funny and serious and change between the two on a dime. It is preferred that Wonka double as the Candy Man, as it helps reinforce that Wonka has staged the Golden Ticket competition and is somewhat controlling this contest along the way. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: G3 Phineous Trout Phineous is the reporter who announces the winners of the Golden Ticket contest throughout the show. The role requires some singing, and can be played by either a boy or a girl. If played by a girl, be sure to change the pronouns appropriately. Gender: Any Mrs. Gloop Mrs. Gloop is Augustus' mother who has overindulged her son with food. The role requires a character actress who isn't afraid to take positive risks both in her acting and her singing. Gender: Female Violet Beauregarde Gum chewer extraordinaire, Violet hails from Snellville, Georgia, so it's nice if she has a Southern American accent, but not necessary. Violet should stand in stark contrast to Veruca Salt. Veruca is a wealthy refined brat; Violet is more of a blue-collar, middle-class brat. Gender: Female Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: C4 Matilda Matilda is also a schoolmate of Charlie's, but she's a bit of bully. Matilda has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with James and Charlie. Gender: Female Vocal range top: B4 Vocal range bottom: C#4 Candy Man The Candy Man goes from neighborhood to neighborhood selling candy, much like an ice cream truck. He should be pleasant, charismatic, and friendly. It's possible for a girl to play this role, but she should play the role as male, otherwise, the title of the song may not make sense. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: G3 Mr. Bucket These are great roles for young people who have nice voices, and are natural nurturers. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Male Mike Teavee For this adaptation Mike is not just a TV junky. He is also addicted to video games, the Internet and any other mindnumbing technological device. Mike is bratty, loud and obnoxious. He does not know the word "no." Mike could also be portrayed by a girl playing a boy, but generally works best with a male actor. Gender: Male Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: Db4 Squirrels The squirrels are non-speaking, non-singing roles and you can cast as many as necessary. This is a great part for beginning actors. Gender: Any Charlie Bucket The role of Charlie Bucket is the emotional heart and soul of the musical. The actor performing Charlie should have an unchanged voice and lots of pluck and enthusiasm. Think a male "Annie." Charlie is in nearly every scene, so make sure you select an actor who can handle the demands of a sizable role. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Mrs. Bucket These are great roles for young people who have nice voices, and are natural nurturers. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Augustus Gloop Augustus is the overachieving eater who represents the evils of eating too much. Be extremely sensitive in casting this role as it is tempting to cast an overweight young person and that can be scarring-especially if the child struggles with this issue. Consider casting a thin child and creating the illusion of size via the costume. Either a boy or a girl acting like a boy can play Augustus. Gender: Male Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: Eb4 Ms. Teavee Ms. Teavee is a take on all television moms of the distant past. Think June Cleaver (Leave it to Beaver) or Marion Cunningham (Happy Days) or Carol Brady (The Brady Bunch). She's perfectly put together and a bit vacant. Gender: Female Veruca Salt Veruca is the wealthy, class-conscious, spoiled brat. She is often portrayed with a high British accent that is by no means required (brats come in all nationalities). Veruca's solo number "I Want It Now" is deceptively tricky and comes late in the show, so select a young woman with a strong voice. Veruca should contrast sharply with Violet Beauregarde in terms of look and physical type. Gender: Female Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: A3 James James is Charlie's friend from school. He has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with Matilda and Charlie. Gender: Male Vocal range top: A4 Vocal range bottom: A3 Mrs. Beauregarde Mrs. Beauregard is a teacher of geography and has invested a great deal of hard-earned money on therapy for her orally fixated daughter, with less than stellar results. The role is virtually non-singing. Her accent should match Violet's. Gender: Female Grandpa Joe Grandpa Joe is the grandfather we all wish we had when we were Charlie's age. He is caring, patient, sweet and always reminds Charlie to remain cheerful. Cast an actor who can be kind and funny. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: C4 Chorus Of Cooks Please note this is an optional chorus. The Cooks appear during "I Eat More!" presenting Augustus with a smorgasbord of food choices. (Check out the Director's Guide note in the song for more information.) Double the Candy Man Kids Chorus and Oompa-Loompa Chorus or cast a single class of kids to perform this section. (For example, Mrs. Ripley's third grade class.) Gender: Any Mr. Salt Mr. Salt's solution to most problems is to buy his way out. He is upper class, and usually portrayed with a high British accent. (But this accent is not necessary-just make sure Veruca and Mr. Salt sound like they hail from the same place.) He sings very little. A female actress playing male may also play the role. Gender: Male
Godspell Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Conceived and Originally Directed by John-Michael Tebelak Music and New Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Originally Produced on the New York Stage by Edgar Lansbury, Stuart Duncan and Joseph Beruh Overview / Synopsis Godspell JR.* is the young performer's edition of John-Michael Tebelak and Stephen Schwartz's groundbreaking and unique reflection on the life of Jesus, with a message of kindness, tolerance and love. Godspell is an engaging, innovative show that draws from various theatrical traditions, including clowning, pantomime, charades, acrobatics and vaudeville. Originally conceived for a cast of ten, the Broadway Junior version of Godspell is designed to allow you to expand your cast to include as many student performers as your stage can accommodate. Each of the parables and songs used in Godspell can be cast with a different group of students and can be rehearsed separately, allowing groups to rehearse simultaneously. If you choose to add the optional Godspell JR. Choir, you can use nearly everyone from your school or group who wishes to participate. Godspell can be performed virtually anywhere with the simplest of sets, costumes, lights and music. This show will be a favorite of performers and audiences alike! The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this John-Michael Tebelak story and Stephen Schwartz score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Audio Sampler - HL00103055 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971784 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request * Godspell JR. is not available in Canada Individual Components 09971786 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971785 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971787 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971788 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971789 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971790 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971676 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00103054 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971791 - Media Disc $10.00 00103055 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Act 1 Prepare Ye the Way of the Lord [John the Baptist, Company] Save the People [Jesus, Company] Day by Day [Solo, Company] Learn Your Lessons Well [Solo1, Solo 2] O, Bless the Lord, My Soul [Solo, Company] All for the Best [Jesus, Judas, Company] All Good Gifts [Solo, Company] We Beseech Thee [Solo, Company] Light of the World [Solo 1, Solo 2, Company] Act 2 Beautiful City [Female Solo] On the Willows [Orchestra] Finale [Jesus, Company] Bows [Company] Exit [Orchestra] Jesus Jesus is first and foremost a teacher. He should come off very naturalistic, not high and mighty or judgmental. He should be charismatic with being affected; serious, but with a good sense of humor; somebody who everybody likes and wants to have as a friend. While he doesn't have to sing a lot, his first song, "Save the People," should sound beautiful, clear and unaffected. John the Baptist/Judas John the Baptist/Judas is a role played by one person. It is important to note that in the original production of Godspell, the actors all used their own names and the original script did not include characters designated as "Judas" or "John the Baptist." As you cast this role, remember it is not really two different roles, just one actor embodying the actions of these two biblical figures. The character is charismatic, but also headstrong and sometimes acts in rash ways. Be daring in your casting - this role does not necessarily have to be played by a male performer. SOLO SINGERS "Day by Day" The singer who leads "Day by Day" doesn't need to have a wide range, but the song should sit in a place where they can sing it out strongly and with conviction. "Learn Your Lessons Well" The two soloists for "Learn Your Lessons Well" should be your singers who can enunciate expertly - the song is less about the melody and more about getting the words out quickly and so the audience can understand them. "O Bless the Lord, My Soul" This is a big song with several changes in tempo and tone. It requires your singer with the biggest, most dexterous voice. Even though the tempo becomes very bright during the song, don't worry if you don't cast your best dancer: letting the soloist stand and sing while the ensemble moves around them works just fine. "All Good Gifts" The slow, beautiful ballad of Godspell. Of all the songs in the show, this one demands your most beautiful voice. "We Beseech Thee" Here's one for the class clown! It can be almost spoken and still work well, as long as your performer has personality plus! "Light of the World" Another song that can almost be spoken - but remember, it's a song about making sure your light shines throughout the world - the singer has to really "sell" the song! "Beautiful City" Beautiful and sincere, the singer must be able to let the audience know that they understand the message Jesus has been teaching. FEATURED ACTORS/ACTRESSES Narrators Most of the parables have a narrator or two. Your narrators should be among your best speakers. You should be confident that they can handle longer sections of dialogue. Players Some of the players have lines and some do not. All players should be encouraged to develop larger than life characters.
Guys & Dolls Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Abe Burrows & Jo Swerling Music & Lyrics by Frank Loesser Originally Directed on Broadway by George S. Kaufman Overview / Synopsis One of Broadway's most hilarious shows, Guys and Dolls has been described as the perfect musical comedy. It is primarily based on Damon Runyon's short story "The Idyll of Miss Sarah Brown," which describes the unlikely romance between a pure at heart urban missionary and a slick Broadway gambler. The show's second romantic storyline involves Nathan Detroit and Miss Adelaide, who have been engaged for fourteen years. Nathan organizes "the oldest established, permanent floating craps game in New York," and Adelaide is the main attraction at the Hot Box nightclub. Guys and Dolls opened on Broadway on November 24, 1950. Producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin assembled an exceptional team to bring Runyon's hard-shelled, but basically softhearted characters to the stage. The team, which included composer/lyricist Frank Loesser, co-book writer Abe Burrows, director George S. Kaufman, and choreographer Michael Kidd, created an instant hit, praised by reviewers as one of the most well constructed book musicals in Broadway history. Guys and Dolls has had several successful Broadway revivals and tours, and is one of the most produced shows worldwide. The Broadway Junior version has the approval of the author's estate and was first produced in 1998. Audio Sampler - HL08754784 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971718 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971714 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971713 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971717 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971742 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971715 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971716 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971720 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971743 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971719 - Media Disc $10.00 08754784 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Scene 1 Fugue for Tinhorns [Nicely, Benny, Rusty Charlie, opt. Ensemble] Follow the Fold [Sarah and the Mission Band] The Oldest Established [Nicely, Benny, Nathan and Crapshooters] Scene 2 I'll Know [Sarah and Sky] Scene 3 A Bushel and a Peck [Adelaide and Dolls] Adelaide's Lament [Adelaide] Scene 4 Guys and Dolls [Nicely, Benny, opt. Ensemble] Scene 7 If I Were a Bell [Sarah] Scene 8 I've Never Been in Love Before [Sarah and Sky] Scene 9 Adelaide's Second Lament [Adelaide] Scene 11 Luck Be a Lady [Sky, Crapshooters] Scene 13 Sit Down You're Rockin' the Boat [Nicely, Ensemble] Scene 14 Marry the Man Today [Adelaide, Sarah] Scene 15 The Happy Ending [The Company] Nathan Detroit Nathan Detroit needn't be a great singer, but should be a good actor with excellent comic timing. Adelaide Adelaide needn't be a great singer, but must have a strong character voice and a good sense of pitch. She needs to be able to do a New York accent and have good comic timing. Sky Masterson Sky Masterson is the quintessential, smooth as velvet Broadway gambler. He needn't be a great singer, but MUST be able to own the stage in "Luck Be a Lady." Sarah Brown Sarah Brown is the girl next door with a more adventurous side that's waiting to get out. She must be an excellent singer and a good actor. Arvide Abernathy Arvide Abernathy is Sarah's grandfather. May also be cast as a girl, changing to Sarah's grandmother. Benny Southstreet Benny Southstreet is a gambler. Rusty Charlie Rusty Charlie is a gambler. Harry the Horse Harry the Horse is a gambler. Lt. Brannigan Lt. Brannigan is a New York City cop. General Cartwright General Cartwright is head of the Save-a-Soul mission. Big Jule Big Jule is a very tough, gun-toting gangster from Chicago. Mimi Mimi is a doll. Angie the Ox Angie the Ox is a gambler. Guys Guys - The rest of your male ensemble (except for the mission band) can be cast as "guys." They are the crapshooters, gamblers, workers, New York City folks of all types. Dolls Dolls - The Dolls are your Hot Box girls and other ensemble females. You will want to designate your Hot Box girls as your preferred singers and dancers. Frequently, you will have many more girls than boys audition, so you may want to cast some of your girls as "guys." Mission Band Mission Band includes Agatha and Calvin. You can fill out the ensemble of your production by adding as many members of the Mission Band as your stage can accommodate.
Disney's & Cameron Mackintosh's Mary Poppins Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Original Music and Lyrics by Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman Book by Julian Fellowes New Songs and Additional Music and Lyrics by Anthony Drewe and George Stiles Co-Created by Cameron Mackintosh A Musical based on the stories of P.L. Travers and the Walt Disney Film Overview / Synopsis Delight your audience with a show that's supercalifragilisticexpialidocious! Follow Jane and Michael Banks on fantastical adventures with their new nanny as she helps the Banks family in more ways than one. Based on the books by P.L. Travers and the classic Walt Disney film, Mary Poppins JR. includes a score filled with timeless classics as well as charming new songs written especially for this adaptation. Audio Sampler - HL00239827 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00239815 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Director's Guide Piano/Vocal Score 2 Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00239816 - Director's Guide $100.00 00239818 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00239819 - Actor's Script $10.00 00239820 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00239821 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs $75.00 00239822 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00239824 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00239825 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00239826 - Media Disc $10.00 00239827 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Prologue Cherry Tree Lane (Part 1) The Perfect Nanny Cherry Tree Lane (Part 2) Practically Perfect Jolly Holiday Winds Do Change A Spoonful of Sugar Precision and Order (Part 1) Precision and Order (Part 2) A Man Has Dreams Feed the Birds Supercalifragilistic- expialidocious Twists and Turns Playing the Game / Chim Chim Cher-ee Brimstone and Treacle (Part 1) Let's Go Fly a Kite Brimstone and Treacle (Part 2) Step in Time Anything Can Happen (Part 1) Give Us The Word Anything Can Happen (Part 2) Goodbye Then, Mary Anything Can Happen (Finale) Bert The narrator of the story, is a good friend to Mary Poppins. An everyman, Bert is a chimney sweep and a sidewalk artist, among many other occupations. With a twinkle in his eye and a skip in his step, Bert watches over the children and the goings-on around Cherry Tree Lane. He is a song-and-dance man with oodles of charm who is wise beyond his years. Cast your strongest male singer, dancer, and actor in this role. Gender: Male Vocal range: B2-F4 George Banks Husband to Winifred and father to Jane and Michael, is a banker to the very fiber of his being. Demanding "precision and order" in his household, he is a pip-and-slippers man who doesn't have much to do with his children and believes that Miss Andrew, his cruel, strict childhood nanny, gave him the perfect upbringing. George's emotional armor, however off-putting, conceals a sensitive soul. A baritone, George may speak-sing as necessary and should be among your strongest male actors and singers. Gender: Male Vocal range: Bb2-F4 Winifred Banks George's wife and Jane and Michael's mother. She is a loving homemaker who is busy trying to live up to her husband's social aspirations while striving to be a model wife and mother. Cast an actor who can portray a great warmth and depth of feeling. Winifred should have a pure vocal tone and be one of your stronger actors and singers. Gender: Female Vocal range: A3-Eb5 Jane Banks The high-spirited daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Banks, bright and precocious but can be willful and inclined to snobbishness. Cast a wonderful actor and a strong singer who can take the audience on an emotional journey. Gender: Female Vocal range: A3-Eb5 Michael Banks The cheeky son of Mr. and Mrs. Banks. Excitable and naughty, he adores his father and longs desperately for his attention. Both he and Jane misbehave in order to get the attention of their parents. Michael should be a great actor and singer. Ideally, he reads onstage as younger than Jane. Gender: Male Vocal range: A3-E5 Mrs. Brill The housekeeper and cook for the Banks family. Overworked, she's always complaining that the house is understaffed. Her intimidating exterior is a cover for the warmth underneath. She does not have to be a strong singer, but she should be a solid actor. Gender: Female Robertson Ay The houseboy to the Banks family. Forgetful and clumsy, he often bungles simple tasks. He doesn't do a lot of singing, but he should be a good comedic actor. Note: his last name is pronounced like "eye." Gender: Male Mary Poppins Jane and Michael Banks's new nanny. She is extraordinary and strange, neat and tidy, delightfully vain yet very particular, and sometimes a little frightening, but she is always exciting. She is practically perfect in every way and always means what she says. The role calls for an excellent singer and actor who should be able to move well. Since she carries a majority of the show, precision and diction are key. Gender: Female Vocal range: G3-F5 Ensemble Groups & Featured Roles All ensembles require group singing; featured roles require either solo singing or solo acting, or both. For each featured role, the pages showcasing the character's lines or vocals are listed. Ensemble & Featured Characters include: Katie Nanna, Park Strollers, Statues, Neleus, Bird Woman, Honeybees, Clerks, Miss Smythe, Chariman, Von Hussler, John Northbrook, Vagrants, Buskers, Passerby, Mrs. Corry, Customers, Miss Andrew, Kite Flyers, Chimney Sweeps, Policeman and the Messenger. Katie Nanna Katie Nanna is Jane and Michael's nanny at the beginning of the show. Overwhelmed and upset, she has absolutely had her fill of the Banks children. This role is perfect for a performer who is not quite ready for a larger role. Gender: Female Park Strollers The Park Strollers are citizens of London who go from drab and dreary to bright and colorful as they get swept up in Mary Poppins's adventures in the park. Gender: Both Statues The Statues are stone sculptures. Thanks to Mary Poppins, these works of art come alive and dance with Bert and the Park Strollers. Gender: Both Neleus Neleus is a statue who, once brought to life by Mary Poppins, is very happy to befriend Jane and Michael. This role is a wonderful opportunity to feature one of the strong dancers in your ensemble. Gender: Both Vocal range: Bb4-Eb5 Bird Woman The Bird Woman is covered in a patchwork of old shawls, her pockets stuffed with bags of crumbs for the birds. She tries to sell the crumbs to Passersby, who ignore her as if she doesn't exist. While she should be a good singer, there can be a gruff, folksy quality to her voice that reflects the difficulties of her situation. Gender: Female Vocal range: G3-D5 Honeybees The Honeybees are conjured by Mary Poppins to help teach the children the benefits of "A Spoonful of Sugar." These roles require good movers who can sing. Gender: Both Clerks The Clerks, like George, are employees at the bank. These roles require actors who can sing. Gender: Both Miss Smythe Miss Smythe is the bank Chairman's humorless secretary. This smaller role is great for a performer who is new to the stage. Gender: Female Chairman Chairman, the head of the bank where Mr. Banks is employed, is an Edwardian stuffed shirt. He does not need to be a strong singer, but he should be a good actor with great stage presence. Gender: Male Von Hussler Von Hussler is a businessman seeking a loan from the bank for a shady business deal. This is a great character role for a fantastic actor who can command the stage with pomposity. Gender: Male John Northbrook John Northbrook is an honest businessman seeking a loan to build a factory for his community. This is a great role for a good actor and solid singer who may not be ready to tackle a large part. Gender: Male Vocal range: C3-D4 Vagrants, Buskers, and Passerby Vagrants, Buskers, and Passerby are citizens of London passing by the cathedral during "Feed the Birds." They can also be played by the Park Strollers earlier in the show. Gender: Both Mrs. Corry Mrs. Corry owns a magical Talking Shop. She is a mysterious woman of indeterminate age, but has plenty of spirit and is sharp as a tack. Cast an excellent actor who's not afraid to be over the top in this fun role. Gender: Female Miss Andrew Miss Andrew is George's overbearing and scary childhood nanny. With her bottle of nasty- tasting brimstone and treacle to keep naughty children in line, she is a bully who only knows one way of doing things: her way. Cast one of your stronger singers in this featured role. Gender: Female Vocal range: G#3-D5 Kite Flyers Kite Flyers consist of families flying kites in the park. They can also be comprised of the same ensemble members as the Park Strollers, the Passersby, and Mrs. Corry's Customers. Gender: Both Chimney Sweeps Chimney Sweeps (including Sweep 1, Sweep 2, Sweep 3, and Sweep 4) are Bert's cheerful, friendly, and agile friends who keep London's chimneys in working order. These actors should be great dancers and good singers, capable of bringing the show-stopping number "Step In Time" to life. Gender: Both Policeman and the Messenger The Policeman, a neighborhood patrol officer, and the Messenger, who delivers a summons to George from the bank, are great roles for students new to the stage that might not be ready for a large role. Gender: Both
Honk! Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Anthony Drewe Music by George Stiles Lyrics by Anthony Drewe Based on Hans Christian Andersen's "The Ugly Duckling" Overview / Synopsis Adapted for young performers, and with a score by George Stiles and Anthony Drewe (Mary Poppins), Honk! JR. is a heartwarming celebration of being different that is sure to delight audiences of all ages with its sparkling wit, unique charm and memorable score. Witty and hilarious, but also deeply moving, Honk! JR. will treat your audiences to equal amounts of laughter and tears. Ugly looks quite a bit different from his darling duckling brothers and sisters. The other animals on the farm are quick to notice and point this out, despite his mother's protective flapping. Feeling rather foul about himself, the little fowl finds himself on an adventure of self-discovery, all the while unknowingly outwitting a very hungry Cat. Along the way, Ugly meets a whole flock of unique characters and finds out being different is not a bad thing to be. Featuring a flexible cast size, Honk! JR. can be performed with simple sets and costumes. No feathers or fur necessary! Audio Sampler - HL00215363 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00215350 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Director's Guide Piano/Vocal Score 2 Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs Media Disc Choreography DVD 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00215351 - Director's Guide $100.00 00215352 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00215353 - Actor's Script $10.00 00215354 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00215358 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs $75.00 00215359 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00215360 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00215361 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00215362 - Media Disc $10.00 00215363 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample A Poultry Tale The Joy of Motherhood Different (Pre-Reprise) Hold Your Head Up High Look at Him Different Play with Your Food Every Tear a Mother Cries The Wild Goose Chase The Joy of Motherhood (Reprise) Warts and All The Blizzard The Transformation Look at Him (Reprise) Warts and All (Reprise) Melting Moggy Ducklings Beaky, Fluff, Billy, Downy are Ugly's siblings - cute little kid types. They are among the "popular" ones in the duck yard who enjoy making Ugly feel left out. They sing as a group. Ugly The ugly duckling and the main character. Innocent, easily confused and very impressionable, Ugly doesn't understand why it is wrong being different. However, his insecurities melt away as his character gradually changes from a gullible duckling to a wise swan, filled with self-esteem. He is the heart and soul of the show. He must be a strong singer and good actor. Gender: Male Vocal range: D4-F5 Ida Ugly's mom. Ida is extremely protective of her son and committed to his safety. She is sweet but feisty, and she knows how to handle her husband, Drake. After Ugly is lured away from the barnyard by the Cat, Ida is determined to find him. Ida and Ugly's relationship is a key ingredient of the show. She is the one who teaches him that it is OK to be different. Ida sings several solos, and therefore she should have a strong soprano singing voice. Gender: Female Vocal range: F4-A5 Drake Ida's husband. Drake is a sarcastic character. He is the stereotypical sitcom father - often shirking his parental duties. Drake finds Ugly quite repulsive and isn't afraid to say it to anyone, including his wife. He should have good comic timing and a strong singing voice. Drake opens the show singing "A Poultry Tale." Gender: Male Vocal range: A3-F5 Maureen A moorhen and Ida's best friend. (Originally found on the moors, a moorhen is a hen that lives near the water.) Maureen genuinely loves Ida, but she can't resist a bit of good gossip. To the little ducklings, she is the typical annoying and overly affectionate "aunt." Maureen sings "The Joy of Motherhood" with Ida, so she should also be a strong singer. Gender: Female Vocal range: G#4-C#5 The Cat The sly, cunning villain of the show. All of the other animals are deathly afraid of him. He is manipulative, cunning, witty and above all, HUNGRY. The Cat pretends to be Ugly's friend so he can eat him. The actor playing this role (which could be played by a male or a female) should bring a sense of fun to the character and have a good sense of comic timing. He sings a few songs, but his character allows for many of the lyrics to be "talk-sung." Improv skills are a plus. Gender: Both Vocal range: A3-Eb5 Greylag A somewhat pompous goose and washed-up British military type, Greylag tends to over glorify his mundane activities (i.e. migrating South) to the level of military operation status. Only his wife, Dot, truly knows how to handle him. He sings a solo in "Wild Goose Chase." Gender: Male Vocal range: A4-C5 Dot A motherly type, she is genuinely concerned with helping Ugly find his mother. Dot doesn't think that Greylag, her husband, is an entirely capable leader, but she kindly humors his "over the top" actions. She sings solo as well as with Greylag in "Wild Goose Chase." Good singer. Gender: Female Barnacles A goose in Greylag's "squad." Barnacles joins in singing "Wild Goose Chase." Good singer. Gender: Both Snowy A goose in Greylag's "squad." Snowy joins in singing "Wild Goose Chase." Good singer. Gender: Both Pinkfoot A goose in Greylag's "squad." Pinkfoot joins in singing "Wild Goose Chase." Good singer. Gender: Both The Bullfrog A laidback, self-confident frog with whom Ugly comes into contact in the second half of the show. The frog cheers Ugly up with his/her song, "Warts and All." Optimistic and funny, he/she is a stand-up comedian type of character well-suited to someone with good improvisational sills and comic timing. This role can be played by a male or female. Gender: Both Vocal range: A3-F5 Penny The young, beautiful swan that Ugly saves from a tangled fishing net. She is able to see beyond Ugly's looks and she loves him for who he is. She does not sing solo. Gender: Female Father Swan Penny's family. They help to console Ida when she thinks her son has died, and they offer to take Ugly with them when they migrate. They do not sing solos. Gender: Male Mother Swan Penny's family. They help to console Ida when she thinks her son has died, and they offer to take Ugly with them when they migrate. They do not sing solos. Gender: Female Berwick Penny's family. They help to console Ida when she thinks her son has died, and they offer to take Ugly with them when they migrate. They do not sing solos. Gender: Both Grace The most distinguished duck on the lake. Very aristocratic, she is considered the queen of the duck yard. All of the other animals look up to Grace and respect her. She, of course, is quite aware of this and is therefore a little bit haughty. Gender: Female The Turkey The headmaster of the ducklings' school. The Turkey is a bit snobbish and joins in the fun of teasing Ugly. There is of course one word that send shivers down his spine - THANKSGIVING! The Turkey does not sing solo. Gender: Male Henrietta A hen and another of Maureen's friends. Henrietta and Maureen gossip about the goings on in the duck yard. She takes great pleasure in making fun of Ugly. Henrietta does not sing solo. Gender: Female Jay Bird An investigative reporter. A very "in your face" bird, all she/he cares about is getting a good story. She/He is the typical TV news personality who one would find on a reality TV show like "America's Most Wanted." She/He reports a story about Ugly's disappearance. Note: If this character is played by a female, the name can be changed to "Maggie Pie." Gender: Both The Farmer The only humans in the show. They are never seen by the audience, only their voices are heard. These voices may be pre-recorded or said live from backstage during the show. Gender: Both Boy The only humans in the show. They are never seen by the audience, only their voices are heard. These voices may be pre-recorded or said live from backstage during the show. Gender: Male Girl The only humans in the show. They are never seen by the audience, only their voices are heard. These voices may be pre-recorded or said live from backstage during the show. Gender: Female Ensemble The remaining actors in the company play a number of different roles. Throughout the action of the play they take on roles as barn yard animals, geese, children at play, froglets, and part of the Blizzard scene. Gender: Both
20th Century French Art Songs | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Online - French Art Songs 20th CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968). 20TH CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
Disney's The Little Mermaid Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Lyrics by Glenn Slater Book by Doug Wright Lyrics by Howard Ashman Music by Alan Menken Overview / Synopsis In a magical kingdom fathoms below, the beautiful young mermaid Ariel longs to leave her ocean home to live in the world above. But first, she'll have to defy her father, King Triton, make a deal with the evil sea witch, Ursula, and convince Prince Eric that she's the girl with the enchanting voice. Adapted from Disney's 2008 Broadway production, Disney's The Little Mermaid JR. features the hit songs such as "Part of Your World," "She's in Love," and the Oscar®-winning "Under the Sea." Audio Sampler - HL08754783 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971687 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Performance/Accompaniment & Guide Vocal Audio (Digital Only) Choreography Videos (Digital Only) Downloadable Media Resources (Digital Only) Digital Delivery Update Now you can receive digital access to many of the ShowKit components you know and love. Look forward to easily distributing these crucial components to your cast and creative team: Performance Accompaniment Tracks and Guide Vocal Tracks (Formerly Accompaniment CD & Rehearsal CD, respectively) will now be delivered together as a digital download and easily shared with your entire team, cast, and crew Choreography Videos (formerly the Choreography DVD) will be available to stream directly from mtishows.com. Now not only your choreographer but the entire cast will have access to fantastic step-by-step instruction for every Broadway Junior title! Downloadable Resources (formerly the Resources (or Media) Disc), including Audition Materials, a customizable press release, program and other helpful templates, and more can all be accessed with a click of a button 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971685 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971684 - Director's Script $100.00 09971686 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971745 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971688 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971689 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971691 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971744 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971690 - Media Disc $10.00 08754783 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Fathoms Below [Pilot, Sailors, Prince Eric, Grimsby] Daughters of Triton [Mersisters] Human Stuff [Scuttle, Gulls, Ariel, Flounder] Part of Your World [Ariel] Under the Sea [Sebastian, Sea Creatures] Part of Your World (Reprise) [Ariel] She's in Love [Mersisters, Flounder] Poor Unfortunate Souls [Ursula, Flotsam, Jetsam, Tentacles] Beluga Sevruga [Ursula, Ariel] Les Poissons [Chef Louis, Chefs] One Step Closer [Prince Eric] Kiss the Girl [Sebastian, Lagoon Animals] The Contest [Grimsby, Princesses] Poor Unfortunate Souls (Reprise) [Ursula, Tentacles] Part of Your World (Finale) [Ariel, Company] Under the Sea (Bows) [Company] Ariel Ariel, the heroine of our story, is a little mermaid who longs to be human. Cast a strong singer and dynamic performer in this role. Ariel has some beautiful solos but must be able to convey meaning through gesture once she loses her voice. PRINCE ERIC Prince Eric is the adventurous prince who captures Ariel's heart. Look for a charming performer with a sensitive nature. Prince Eric has a few small solos, but it is more important to cast a strong actor in this role. SEBASTIAN Sebastian is the meticulous and anxious crab who tries to keep Ariel safe while getting to lead some of the most memorable songs in the show! Sebastian can be played by a boy or girl. FLOUNDER Flounder is Ariel's sincere and sensitive best friend who is loyal to the end. This spunky fish also has a show-stopping solo in "She's in Love." Flounder can be cast with a girl or a boy with an unchanged voice. KING TRITON King Triton rules the sea and is a force to be reckoned with. This non-singer needs to command the stage as a strong leader but also show the tenderness of a parent. Cast a mature performer who feels comfortable playing father to Ariel and the Mersisters. The Mersisters The Mersisters (Aquata, Andrina, Arista, Atina, Adella, Allana) are Ariel's siblings and full of personality and sass. These are great roles to showcase talented singers and dancers who can create and play six distinctive characters. URSULA Ursula is the manipulative sea witch who tries to overthrow King Triton. She is cunning and devious and will stop at nothing to get what she wants. TENTACLES The Tentacles are extensions of Ursula, perhaps the poor unfortunate souls who are now trapped in her lair. FLOTSAM & JETSAM Flotsam & Jetsam are Ursula's slippery spies. These electric eels are sinister and sneaky, so look for performers who can be underhanded and devious while still being heard on stage. Flotsam and Jetsam can be played by boys or girls. SCUTTLE Scuttle is the know-it-all seagull who serves as Ariel's expert on humans. He is funny and off-beat. Look for a performer with good comedic timing who is willing to have fun with Scuttle's eccentricities. Gulls The Gulls are Scuttle's flock of zany "back-up singers" who help explain human stuff to Ariel. GRIMSBY Grimsby is Prince Eric's prim and proper valet. He is rigid in personality and constantly trying to guide Prince Eric towards the throne. CHEF LOUIS Chef Louis is the over-the-top head chef in the palace. He is always wild and frenetic. This is an excellent featured role for a comedic performer. THE CHEFS The Chefs are Chef Louis's assistants. CARLOTTA Carlotta is the headmistress in Prince Eric's palace and Ariel's greatest human ally. This non-singing role needs to be warm and maternal to make Ariel feel welcome. THE SIX PRINCESSES The six Princesses try everything they can to win the heart of Prince Eric. The six Princesses can double as the six Mersisters. THE PILOT The Pilot is the head sailor on Prince Eric's ship. THE SAILORS The Sailors are the crew of Prince Eric's ship. THE SEAHORSE The Seahorse is the court herald for King Triton. SEA CHORUS The Sea Chorus is responsible for creating each world within the show. The Sea Chorus can double as Merfolk, Sea Creatures and Lagoon Animals. MERFOLK The Merfolk of King Triton's Court and can double as Sea Creatures. LAGOON ANIMALS The Lagoon Animals try to convince Prince Eric to kiss Ariel. This ensemble can double as the Sea Creatures.
Hal Leonard Vocal Competition - 2022 Winners | Hal Leonard THE 2022 HAL LEONARD VOCAL COMPETITION WINNERS Hal Leonard, the world's largest print music publisher and the world leader in vocal music, launched the exciting and innovative concept of a serious music competition for voice students comprised entirely of YouTube video entries. We believe this to be the first legitimate music competition for musicians of various ages, children through college, to be held entirely on the Internet. The required repertoire was largely drawn from art song and musical theatre literature. The deadline for entry was February 2, 2022. Judging has been concluded, and we are pleased to announce the art song and musical theatre results in the four age categories of competition. Congratulations to the prize winners! We were encouraged by the commitment and seriousness of purpose shown in the video entries. If these are a representative sampling, there are clearly many dedicated students and teachers at all levels who have embraced our heritage of music literature. We thank all those who entered for confirming that this experimental venture was more than worthwhile. And we also thank the teachers and parents who guided the voice students in this competition. Thank you also to all the accompanists for their key participation. Complete List of Winners View the Winning Videos View Previous Results 2023 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 ART SONG WINNERS College/University Voices High School Voices Early Teen Voices Children's Voices MUSICAL THEATRE WINNERS Young Adult Voices High School Voices Early Teen Voices Children's Voices COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY VOICES, ART SONG - Undergraduates (AGES 18-23) First Place Kaya Giroux School: Carnegie Mellon University Location: Montreal, Quebec Pianist: Paul Michael Clark Voice Teacher: Maria Spacagna Second Place (tie) Natalie Corrigan School: University of Cincinnati-College Conservatory of Music Location: Cincinnati, OH Pianist: Beth Parker Voice Teacher: Amy Johnson Second Place (tie) Gabrielle Turgeon School: University of Toronto Location: Toronto, ON Pianist: Kathryn Tremills Voice Teacher: Elizabeth McDonald Third Place Blake Stevenson School: University of Southern California Location: Los Angeles, CA Pianist: John-Henri Voice Teacher: Thomas Michael Allen Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Lucy Altus School: Carnegie Mellon University Watch Video Abraham Cruz School: The Boston Conservatory Watch Video Marieke de Koker School: Mannes College of Music Watch Video Jacob Soulliere School: Manhattan School of Music Watch Video HIGH SCHOOL VOICES, ART SONG - AGES 16-18 First Place Elena Oliveira School: Kinder High School for the Performing and Visual Arts Location: Houston, TX Pianist: Yanira Soria Voice Teacher: Hector Vàsquez Second Place (tie) Aliyah Douglas School: Ironwood Ridge High School Location: Oro Valley, AZ Voice Teacher: Stephanie Fox Second Place (tie) Lia Zheng School: Canyon Crest Academy Location: San Diego, CA Voice Teacher: Zeping Cai Third Place (tie) Paige Klemenhagen School: Stillwater Area High School Location: Lake Elmo, MN Pianist: Ruth Palmer Voice Teacher: Teresa Tierney Third Place (tie) Ava Maha School: Choate Rosemary Hall Location: Sewickley, PA Pianist: Nathaniel Baker Voice Teachers: Sooyeon Kim and Lorraine Nubar Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Clara Abrahams Location: Lincoln, CA Watch Video Kimberly Adam Location: Wayne, PA Watch Video Eloise Fox Location: Landenberg, PA Watch Video Elliot Henderson Location: New York, NY Watch Video Henry Hsiao Location: Princeton, NJ Watch Video Alexandra Johnson Location: Howell, MI Watch Video EARLY TEEN VOICES, ART SONG - AGES 13-15 First Place Grace Chung Location: Hackensack, NJ Pianist: Goeun Lee Voice Teacher: Jinhwan Byun Second Place (tie) Salina Mu Location: Austin, TX Voice Teacher: Shaunna Shandro Second Place (tie) Abigail Tidlow-Tranel Location: Yellowstone National Park, WY Pianist: Douglas Burgess Voice Teacher: Jonathan Beyer Third Place (tie) Nana Castle Location: Jacksonville, NC Pianist: Jay R. Wright Voice Teacher: Alison Lawrence Third Place (tie) Aurna Mukherjee Location: Austin, TX Voice Teacher: Michelle Haché Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Isaac Ahn Location: Rye Brook, NY Watch Video Eva Crichton Location: New York, NY Watch Video Abinaya Ganesh Location: Andover, MA Watch Video Jocelyn Knorr Location: Havertown, PA Watch Video David Trey Logeman Location: Kings Mountain, NC Watch Video Lukas Palys Location: Dallas, TX Watch Video Aanya Santosh Location: Lincolnshire, IL Watch Video CHILDREN'S VOICES, ART SONG - AGES 12 AND UNDER First Place Heidi Hager Location: Herndon, VA Voice Teacher: Heather Vineyard Second Place (tie) Maya Joshi Location: Cresskill, NJ Pianist: Liliana Sotirova Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo and Liliana Sotirova Second Place (tie) Diya Koul Location: Lexington, MA Voice Teacher: Beth Sterling Third Place (tie) Katherine Berdovskiy Location: Davis, CA Voice Teacher: Bernadette Mondok Keller Third Place (tie) Juliet Lee Location: Vienna, VA Voice Teacher: Sonia Yon Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Ava Acconzo Location: Bloomingdale, NJ Watch Video Cristina Garcia Location: North Plainfield, NJ Watch Video Ashley Hua Location: Marietta, GA Watch Video Bella Leybovich Location: Mesa, AZ Watch Video Lily Bell Morgan Location: Portsmouth, VA Watch Video Ben Rost Location: Livingston, NJ Watch Video Anna Smith Location: Austin, TX Watch Video Leila Woodward Location: Newport Beach, CA Watch Video YOUNG ADULT VOICES, MUSICAL THEATRE - Undergraduates (AGES 18-23) First Place Abigail Storm School: Ball State University Location: Austin, TX Voice Teacher: Beth Truitt Second Place (tie) Ashlyn Combs School: Winthrop University Location: Lexington, SC Second Place (tie) Natalie Doppelt School: University of Pennsylvania Location: Riverwoods, IL Pianist: Lisa Harer de Calvo Voice Teacher: Courtney Ames Third Place (tie) Aminata Jalloh School: Reinhardt University Location: Powder Springs, GA Pianist: Melanie Williams Voice Teacher: Reverie Berger Third Place (tie) Emily Kars School: Huntington University Location: Kincheloe, MI Pianist: Stephanie See Voice Teacher: Joni Killian Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Te’Jah Beaton School: North Charleston, SC Watch Video Beck Chandler Location: Columbia, SC Watch Video Karen Covarrubias Location: Keene, TX Watch Video Matthew Danforth Location: Demarest, NJ Watch Video Taylor McCullough Location: Kingstree, SC Watch Video Blake Stevenson Location: San Juan Capistrano, CA Watch Video HIGH SCHOOL VOICES, MUSICAL THEATRE - AGES 16-18 First Place Amelia Gibbons School: Southwest High School (Green Bay) Location: De Pere, WI Pianist: Mary Ehlinger Voice Teacher: Kaara McHugh Second Place (tie) Makenna Jacobs School: Perry High School Location: Chandler, AZ Pianist: Jenn Crandell Voice Teacher: Nichole Jensen Second Place (tie) Emma Schrier School: Cinnaminson High School Location: Cinnaminson, NJ Voice Teacher: Tamara Lynn Koveloski Third Place (tie) Emelia Aceto School: Highland High School Location: Hinckley, OH Voice Teacher: Denise Howell Third Place (tie) Ellie Brenner School: Interlochen Arts Academy (MI) Location: Durand, WI Pianist: Douglas Peck Voice Teacher: Douglas Peck Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Lindsay Alexander Location: Austin, TX Watch Video Christine Kelly Location: Geneva, IL Watch Video Ava Lane Location: Livingston, NJ Watch Video EARLY TEEN VOICES, MUSICAL THEATRE - AGES 13-15 First Place Kaiya Bagley School: St. Mary’s School Location: Medford, OR Pianist: Tim Spencer Voice Teacher: Andrea Hochkeppel Second Place (tie) Marina Chamedes School: Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts Location: New York City, NY Pianist: Dan Pardo Voice Teacher: Grant Anderson Second Place (tie) Abinaya Ganesh School: SMB Lessons Location: Clairton, PA Voice Teacher: Stephanie Morey-Barry Third Place (tie) Baylee Horvath School: Christ Greenfield Location: Gilbert, AZ Pianist: Hope Douglass Voice Teacher: Nichole Jensen Third Place (tie) Aurna Mukherjee School: Liberal Arts and Science Academy Location: Austin, TX Pianist: Nick Wilders Voice Teacher: Michelle Haché Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Molly Dupre Location: Mattapoisett, MA Watch Video Ciela Elliott Location: Chappaqua, NY Watch Video Stefan Herrera Location: Houston, TX Watch Video Mina Lim Location: Orinda, CA Watch Video Bridget Lomax Location: Short Hills, NJ Watch Video Morgan Lomax Location: Short Hills, NJ Watch Video Grace Martin Location: Medford, NJ Watch Video Lydia Mushkatina Location: Bellevue, WA Watch Video Violet Paris Location: Brooklyn, NY Watch Video Rachel Rogstad Location: Loma Linda, CA Watch Video Naomi Thuren Location: Medford, OR Watch Video Ananya Yadati Location: Beachwood, OH Watch Video CHILDREN'S VOICES, MUSICAL THEATRE - AGES 12 AND UNDER First Place Maya Joshi School: Cresskill Middle School Location: Cresskill, NJ Pianist: Glenn Gordon Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo, Glenn Gordon and Liliana Sotirova Second Place (tie) Agneya Roy School: Cox Mill Elementary School Location: Concord, NC Voice Teacher: Brandi Icard Second Place (tie) Darby Schlosser School: H.C. Crittenden Middle School Location: Armonk, NY Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo and Gulnara Mitzanova Third Place (tie) Liam Garrett School: Candeo School Location: Peoria, AZ Voice Teachers: Satyam Patel and Ellen Johnson Third Place (tie) Ben Rost School: Collins Elementary School Location: Livingston, NJ Pianist: Glenn Gordon Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo, Glenn Gordon, Gulnara Mitzanova and Liliana Sotirova Honorable Mention (listed alphabetically) Alera Cetrulo Location: Santa Barbara, CA Watch Video Amelia Holly Location: Chicago, IL Watch Video Bella Leybovich Location: Mesa, AZ Watch Video Bella Nazzaro Location: Lake Worth, FL Watch Video Ciana Tzuo Location: New York, NY Watch Video Kylie Kuioka Location: Brooklyn, NY Watch Video Mollie Pedersen Location: Rochester, NH Watch Video Nicole Hodges Location: Spring, TX Watch Video Theodore Burke Location: Rancho Cucamonga, CA Watch Video Yifan Monroe Location: Gig Harbor, WA Watch Video Back To Top
Hal Leonard Vocal Competition - 2022 Winners | Hal Leonard THE 2022 HAL LEONARD VOCAL COMPETITION WINNERS Complete List ART SONG WINNERS Children's Voices Ages 12 and under (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Heidi Hager (age 11) Herndon, VA Navy Elementary School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Heather Vineyard Second Place (tie) Maya Joshi (age 12) Cresskill, NJ Cresskill Middle School Pianist: Liliana Sotirova Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo and Liliana Sotirova Diya Koul (age 12) Lexington, MA Diamond Middle School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Beth Sterling Third Place (tie) Katherine Berdovskiy (age 12) Davis, CA Ralph Waldo Emerson Junior High Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Bernadette Mondok Keller Juliet Lee (age 11) Vienna, VA Wolftrap Elementary School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Sonia Yon Honorable Mentions Ava Acconzo (age 12) Bloomingdale, NJ Cristina Garcia (age 12) North Plainfield, NJ Ashley Hua (age 11) Marietta, GA Bella Leybovich (age 12) Mesa, AZ Lily Bell Morgan (age 10) Portsmouth, VA Ben Rost (age 10) Livingston, NJ Anna Smith (age 12) Austin, TX Leila Woodward (age 12) Newport Beach, CA Finalists Amy Ai (VA) Rachel Liz Anand (TX) Saryu Bapatla (FL) Alisha Batreja (NJ) Lilia Bernstein (CA) Theodore Burke (CA) Davna Ceron (NJ) Vinya Chhabra (NJ) Kayla Colchamiro (NJ) Charlotte Collins-Williams (CA) Mark Corrigan (CA) Aerina DeBoer (NJ) Chloe Ding (CA) Scarlett Diviney (NY) Nithya Gandi (IL) Esther Gao (GA) Rudrani Ghoshal (NC) Anna Grace Howell (PA) Ava Kimble (OH) Mady King (AZ) Olivia Ma (ON) Adhya Mahesh (CA) Beatrice Main (CA) Avyay Mangalampalli (MN) Josephine Martin (NY) Brendan McCanta (CA) Lily Mei (NJ) Carter Meza (CA) Maggie Miao (NY) Elsa Newbower (MA) Anh-Thu Nguyen (CA) Daniella Ngyuen (CA) Shreya Philips (TX) Nikila Rajan (TX) Claire Reimer (IA) Shea Sanders (IA) Akiv Sha (NJ) Siya Sharma (NJ) Elaine Shi (ON) Emma Tang (GA) Luke Tran (CA) Renee Tse (TX) Radha Maria Vargas Saravanamuttu (ON) Dyuti Venkatakrishna (NJ) Edward Wagner (NJ) Isabella Wagner (NJ) Janelle Wu (GA) Claire Xiao (NH) Yonglin Xie (ON) Cnai Zecharya (PA) Audrey Zelkovic (NY) Kayla Zhang (GA) NiuNiu Zhang (MD) Semi-Finalists Mira Bills (WI) Cadence Bleakley (CA) Allison Bovy (IA) Ella Cai (ON) Rick Chen (ON) Alan Csallner (TX) Hailey Dai (NJ) Donovan Dau (CA) Lilliana DeBoer (NJ) Catalina Do (CA) Siyu Fan (CA) Jianna Gutt (NY) Kellan Jewett (NC) Siddharth Kamat (NJ) Alyssa Kusherets (WA) Leonardo Lin (CA) Penelope Main (CA) Yifan Monroe (WA) Marsha Nath (AZ) Sofie Nesanelis (CT) Caylie Nguyen (CA) Saisha Pal (VA) Sophia Ponichter (NY) Shreya Rajeev (CA) Darby Schlosser (NY) Samaira Singh (NJ) Ainsley Sorenson (NY) Maya Surdutovich (CA) Amy Tierolf (CA) Richard James Tucker (NJ) Annika Vadhavkar (NJ) Owen Wang (ON) Ruolin Yuan (NJ) Ainsley Zauel (VA) Karson Zhang (ON) Aiden Zhao (GA) Early Teen Voices Ages 13-15 (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Grace Chung (age 15) Hackensack, NJ Bergen County Academies Pianist: Goeun Lee Voice Teacher: Jinhwan Byun Second Place (Tie) Salina Mu (age 15) Austin, TX Westlake High School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Shaunna Shandro Abigail Tidlow-Tranel (age 15) Yellowstone National Park, WY Gardiner Public School Pianist: Douglas Burgess Voice Teacher: Jonathan Beyer Third Place (tie) Nana Castle (age 15) Jacksonville, NC Jacksonville High School Pianist: Jay R. Wright Voice Teacher: Alison Lawrence Aurna Mukherjee (age 15) Austin, TX Liberal Arts and Science Academy Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Michelle Haché Honorable Mentions Isaac Ahn (age 13) Rye Brook, NY Eva Crichton (age 15) New York, NY Abinaya Ganesh (age 15) Andover, MA Jocelyn Knorr (age 15) Havertown, PA David Trey Logeman (age 15) Kings Mountain, NC Lukas Palys (age 14) Dallas, Texas Aanya Santosh (age 13) Lincolnshire, IL Finalists Elizabeth Cho (MD) Alicia Chu (DE) Gabriela Cruz (NY) Maeve Cunningham (NJ) Daniel Deng (TX) Rebeca Dinca (WA) Emily Jane du Pont (DE) Ciela Elliott (NY) Saoirse Feiler (CA) Silvan Friedman (CT) Ashmita Ghosh (NC) Caitlin Hayles (FL) Evelyn Hsu (CA) Logan Hu (LA) Estella Sky Keyoung (CA) Hazel Kim (IL) Mariam Kubursi (CA) Vanessa Li (MD) Fiona Lin (GA) Bridget Lomax (NJ) Morgan Lomax (NK) Annabelle Miin (CA) Avery Nokes (VA) Violet Paris (NY) Gabe Ponichter (NY) Rachel Rogstad (CA) Katherine Ryan (NY) Viveka Saravanan (CA) Serena Sharma (CT) Kendall Sorenson (NY) Emily Stuart (WA) Celine Velazquez (CA) Hanyamin Wang (GA) Forrest Weaver (NH) Kiran Wisneski (PA) Lily Yezdanian (NJ) Margaret Zhang (NY) Semi-Finalists Misha Agrawal (NJ) Elisabeth Baer (GA) Isha Bhandari (NJ) Zoe Cook (WA) Leena Dey (MA) Charlotte Dugan (NH) Zara Garg (CT) Gretchen Gerke (IA) Anushri Ghoshal (NC) Ellivia Gold (NY) Baylee Horvath (AZ) Veronica James (NJ) Leela Jarschel (CA) Charlie Kratz (PA) Iva Liu (CA) Joon-Hyung Noh (CA) Olivia Petrizzo (NY) Sofia Mariposa Pugh (AL) Niko Rinaldi (CT) Luis Rodriguez (ON) Naomi Sedwick (VA) Chelsea Sun (TX) Noella Tae (CA) Shreya Tanna (NJ) Carmen Tarajano (NC) Temira Weisberg (NJ) Ava Whytsell (SC) Garrett Wirth (CA) Jeffrey Yang (CA) Michael Yu (TX) High School Voices Ages 16-18 (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Elena Oliveira (age 18) Houston, TX Kinder High School for the Performing and Visual Arts Pianist: Yanira Soria Voice Teacher: Hector Vàsquez Second Place (tie) Aliyah Douglas (age 17) Oro Valley, AZ Ironwood Ridge High School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Stephanie Fox Lia Zheng (age 16) San Diego, CA Canyon Crest Academy Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Zeping Cai Third Place (tie) Paige Klemenhagen (age 17) Lake Elmo, MN Stillwater Area High School Pianist: Ruth Palmer Voice Teacher: Teresa Tierney Ava Maha (age 17) Sewickley, PA Choate Rosemary Hall Pianist: Nathaniel Baker Voice Teacher: Sooyeon Kim and Lorraine Nubar Honorable Mentions Clara Abrahams (age 17) Lincoln, CA Kimberly Adam (age 17) Wayne, PA Eloise Fox (age 17) Landenberg, PA Elliot Henderson (age 16) New York, NY Henry Hsiao (age 18) Princeton, NJ Alexandra Johnson (age 16) Howell, MI Finalists Emelia Aceto (OH) Arya Balian (MD) Angelina Chen (CA) Erin Chung (CA) Ava Danzer (WI) Andie Earl (NJ) Olivia Gonzales (TX) Cecilia Harrison (NC) SangHoon Jung (NJ) Elora Kares (OH) Sofia Mains (PA) Andrea Nalywajko (NY) Kierra Pizarro (NY) Jocie Schnee (VA) Elena Skirgaudas (WA) Amanda Spotts (PA) Ashley Stewart (AZ) Semi-Finalists Katie Brigman (LA) Skyy Brooks (PA) Calia Burdette (KY) Janice Chong (CA) Fiona Coughlin (OH) Grace Finke (CA) Grace Hahn (CA) Kelly Irwin (NJ) Makenna Jacobs (AZ) Christine Kelly (IL) Rohan Kurup (WA) Mary Julia Lashley (OH) Emma Leibowitz (CA) Jack Leslie (CA) Carissa Ma (VA) Gianna Macedon (VA) Holly Marescot (NY) Isabella Michaels (PA) Ashwini Narayanan (IL) Abby Olson (CA) Bria Petrella (NJ) Tanisha Pulla (CA) Aashna Rana (CA) Abhigna Sala (GA) Csepke Sallai (VA) Emmeline Sevey (NH) Kirsten Tierney (VA) Luis Vega-Torres (OH) Viven Vigliante (VA) Nicole Witte (AZ) College/Univeristy Voices Ages 18-23 (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Kaya Giroux (age 21) Carnegie Mellon University Pianist: Paul Michael Clark Voice Teacher: Maria Spacagna Second Place (tie) Natalie Corrigan (age 21) University of Cincinnati-College Conservatory of Music Pianist: Beth Parker Voice Teacher: Amy Johnson Gabrielle Turgeon (age 21) University of Toronto Pianist: Kathryn Tremills Voice Teacher: Elizabeth McDonald Third Place Blake Stevenson (age 22) University of Southern California Pianist: John-Henri Voice Teacher: Thomas Michael Allen Honorable Mentions Lucy Altus (age 21) Carnegie Mellon University Abraham Cruz (age 21) The Boston Conservatory Marieke de Koker (age 23) Mannes College of Music Jacob Soulliere (age 22) Manhattan School of Music Finalists Adam Clayton (age 20) Northwestern University Jack Fanselau (age 21) Southwestern Adventist University Sarah Fleiss (age 22) The Curtis Institute of Music Laura Looper (age 19) Indiana University Lilly Nowak (age 19) Oklahoma City University Ian Pathak (age 20) University of Michigan Andrew Puschel (age 20) Bowling Green State University Aliyah Quill (age 20) University of Michigan Kayla Stein (age 20) Eastman School of Music Jillian Tam (age 20) McGill University Will Upham (age 23) Southern Methodist University Meghan Willey (age 20) James Madison University MUSICAL THEATRE WINNERS Children's Voices Ages 12 and under (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Maya Joshi (age 12) Cresskill, NJ Cresskill Middle School Pianist: Glenn Gordon Voice Teacher: Amelia DeMayo, Glenn Gordon and Liliana Sotirova Second Place (tie) Agneya Roy (age 10) Concord, NC Cox Mill Elementary School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Brandi Icard Darby Schlosser (age 12) Armonk, NY H.C. Crittenden Middle School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Amelia DeMayo and Gulnara Mitzanova Third Place (tie) Liam Garrett (age 11) Peoria, AZ Candeo School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teachers: Satyam Patel and Ellen Johnson Ben Rost (age 9) Livingston, NJ Collins Elementary School Pianist: Glenn Gordon Voice Teachers: Amelia DeMayo, Glenn Gordon, Gulnara Mitzanova and Liliana Sotirova Honorable Mentions Alera Cetrulo (age 10) Santa Barbara, CA Amelia Holly (age 10) Chicago, IL Bella Leybovich (age 12) Mesa, AZ Bella Nazzaro (age 11) Lake Worth, FL Ciana Tzuo (age 12) New York, NY Kylie Kuioka (age 11) Brooklyn, NY Mollie Pedersen (age 12) Rochester, NH Nicole Hodges (age 11) Spring, TX Theodore Burke (age 12) Rancho Cucamonga, CA Yifan Monroe (age 10) Gig Harbor, WA Finalists Kellen Bryant (AZ) Mary Burklin (GA) Catalina Chang (NY) Vinya Chhabra (NJ) Hannah Cohen (NJ) Kayla Colchamiro (NJ) Katelyn Dempsey (IL) Brayden Flores (TX) Rudrani Ghoshal (NC) Heidi Hager (VA) Anna Grace Howell (PA) Mady King (AZ) Diya Koul (MA) Scarlett Lau (ON) Chloe Lee (ON) Juliet Lee (VA) McKenzie Lopezlira (AZ) Noelle Louis (NY) Josephine Martin (NY) Carter Meza (CA) Lily Bell Morgan (VA) Brooke Naznitsky (NJ) Jillian Platero (NJ) Poppy Pollard (TX) Brady Roland (PA) Gabriel Saphier (NJ) Akiv Shah (NJ) Anna Smith (TX) John Michael Starling (AL) Sienna Stoll (AZ) Angelina Tong (GA) Leila Woodward (CA) Semi-Finalists Nethania Ajan (TX) Rachel Liz Anand (TX) Anna Athungal (NJ) Ash Bajaj (TX) Saryu Bapatla (LA) Lilia Bernstein (CA) Mira Bills (WI) Mandolyn Binsted (TX) Ava Carranza (AZ) Davna Ceron (NJ) Annabelle Chung (TX) Lucy Cox (GA) Aja Crockett (MA) Jax DaSilva (MA) Lilliana DeBoer (NJ) Adeline DeFeo (MA) Chloe Ding (CA) Vince Ermita (NJ) Daniel Evans (NJ) Anne Gao (VA) Cristina Garcia (NJ) Abigail Gibbins (TX) William Goldsman (NY) Marley Griggs (TX) Lucian Gutfraynd (IL) Fiona Halter (NJ) Lucy Hendricks (WI) Morgan Hensley (TN) Rachel Hesom (MB) Hannah Hodges (TX) Ashley Hua (GA) Kate Hwang (CA) Kellan Jewett (NC) Felice Kakaletris (NJ) Siddharth Kamat (NJ) Ava Kimble (OH) Olympiada Kokkalis (PA) Alejandra Landaeta (FL) Jiaxuan Li (GA) Miranda Libanan (NJ) Antonio Lin (CA) Nola Linder (VT) Margot Mahan (NY) Nevin Mancell (AB) Avyay Mangalampalli (MN) Esha Marupudi (AZ) Donna Megules (NJ) Lily Mei (NJ) Maggie Miao (NY) Aashi Milla (IL) Norah Miller (PA) Julia Morton (TX) Ruchira Mukherjee (CA) Abiageal Murphy (MA) Saish Nagnur (NJ) Gowri Nair (NJ) Sofie Nesanelis (CT) Kara Ngyuen (CA) Abby Nordby (IL) Saisha Pal (VA) Yash Patel (AZ) Neel Pati (TX) Shreya Philips (TX) Daphne Pollard (TX) Fiona Morgan Quinn (PA) Ryan Rahman (CA) Charlie Russell (VA) Shea Sanders (IA) Anika Sandilya (NJ) Siya Sharma (NJ) Sophia Sheth (IL) Ainsley Sorenson (NY) Maddie Stufft (OH) Jacob Sturgis (PA) Emma Tang (GA) Monique Tian (DE) Lauren Trabanco (FL) Lydia Tracy (TX) Karstyn Traylor (TX) Richard James Tucker (NJ) Ella Twaddle (MN) Owen Wang (ON) Jazz Washinton (WA) Christiaan Wilkes (NY) Sabine Wolfli (AB) Janelle WU (GA Lily Youngstrom (CA) NiuNiu Zhang (MD) Early Teen Voices Ages 13-15 (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Kaiya Bagley (age 15) Medford, OR St. Mary’s School Pianist: Tim Spencer Voice Teacher: Andrea Hochkeppel Second Place (tie) Marina Chamedes (age 14) New York City, NY Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts Pianist: Dan Pardo Voice Teacher: Grant Anderson Abinaya Ganesh (age 15) Andover, MA SMB Lessons Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Stephanie Morey-Barry Third Place (tie) Baylee Horvath (age 13) Gilbert, AZ Christ Greenfield Pianist: Hope Douglass Voice Teacher: Nichole Jensen Aurna Mukherjee (age 15) Austin, TX Liberal Arts and Science Academy Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Michele Haché Honorable Mentions Molly Dupre (age 15) Mattapoisett, MA Ciela Elliott (age 15) Chappaqua, NY Stefan Herrera (age 14) Houston, TX Mina Lim (age 15) Orinda, CA Bridget Lomax (age 15) Short Hills, NJ Morgan Lomax (age 15) Short Hills, NJ Grace Martin (age 15) Medford, NJ Lydia Mushkatina (age 15) Bellevue, WA Violet Paris (age 14) Brooklyn, NY Rachel Rogstad (age 15) Loma Linda, CA Naomi Thuren (age 14) Medford, OR Ananya Yadati (age 14) Beachwood, OH Finalists Lia Adzhamoglian (TX) Madeline Ayala (TX) Guy Challen (CA) Kate Clemetson (NV) Maeve Cunningham (NJ) Zoe Dempsey (IL) Sophie DeOliveira (MA) Jocelyn Knorr (PA) David Trey Logeman (NC) Salina Mu (TX) Joon-Hyung Noh (CA) Olivia Petrizzo (NY) Thomas Roper (MS) Katherine Ryan (NY) Viveka Saravanan (CA) Ella Scott (FL) Jessica Smith (PA) Lily Yezdanian (NJ) Semi-Finalists Abigail Adair (OH) Jessica Aezen (NJ) Ella Armandi (PA) Laura Armstrong (IL) Zoe Assis (FL) Madeline Austin (IA) Elizabeth Babiar (GA) Zoey Blackman (NJ) Siyona Bordia (NJ) Ella Bree (NJ) Vivian Brown (OH) Ayla Collins (VA) Zoe Cook (WA) Gabriela Cruz (NY) Elsa Dees (CT) Franziska Diefenbach (NY) Jingyi Du (NY) Charlotte Dugan (NH) Marshall Elliott (LA) Dyuti Ganesh (TX) Katelyn Gard (NY) Sienna Gasparrelli (CA) Ashmita Ghosh (NC) Anushri Ghoshal (NC) Annabel Gilly (NY) Mya Glasofer (NJ) Delilah Grad (TX) Nina Granik (MA) Maya Hanna (IA) Caitlin Hayles (FL) Katey James (OR) Sophie Jaquish (CA) Adhya Karukurichi (MN) Mariam Kubursi (CA) Vanessa Li (MD) Fiona Lin (GA) Grisham Locke (LA) Julia Murphy (VA) Fiona Neff (VA) Avery Nokes (VA) Alexandra Paris (NJ) Angelina Pendleton-Mendez (CA) Rebekah Rogstad (CA) William Daniel Russell (MA) Cetonaya Sammartino (BC) Cole Seevers (VA) Amelia Severns (PA) Sophia Severns (PA) Arushi Sharma (CA) Maya Shull (NY) Kendall Sorenson (NY) Roxie Sparling (UT) Sydney Steiner (NY) Emily Stuart (WA) Elaina Stuppler (OR) Shannon Tilley (PA) Josh Townshend (MD) Forrest Weaver (NH) Kiran Wisneski (PA) Katie Wylie (MA) Nora Yates (IA) Margaret Zhang (NY) High School Voices Ages 16-18 (as of February 1, 2022) First Place Amelia Gibbons (age 17) De Pere, WI Southwest High School (Green Bay) Pianists: Mary Ehlinger Voice Teacher: Kaara McHugh Second Place (tie) Makenna Jacobs (age 16) Chandler, AZ Perry High School Pianists: Jenn Crandell Voice Teachers: Nichole Jensen Emma Schrier (age 17) Cinnaminson, NJ Cinnaminson High School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Tamara Lynn Koveloski Third Place (tie) Emelia Aceto (age 16) Hinckley, OH Highland High School Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Denise Howell Ellie Brenner (age 18) Durand, WI SInterlochen Arts Academy (MI) Pianist: Douglas Peck Voice Teacher: Douglas Peck Honorable Mentions Lindsay Alexander (age 17) Austin, TX Christine Kelly (age 16) Geneva, IL Ava Lane (age 17) Livingston, NJ Finalists Mabry Adair (TX) Kimberly Adam (PA) Braelyn Andrade (MA) Clara Bennett (OR) Skyy Brooks (PA) Juliana Dees (CT) Katrina Franco (CA) Joseph Kayne (OH) Semi-Finalists Yaara Afif (VA) Shayne Barrett Goldstein (NJ) Anika Bhaskaran (MA) Natalie Bordwell (CA) Ty Brennan (WI) Caitlin Callahan (OR) Fiona Coughlin (OH) Shannon Daly (PA) Elena Day (MN) Natalie Evans (AB) Hadley Fitton (MA) Belle Fockler (OH) Jessica Holliday (NJ) Erika Kessler (NJ) Faith Kirkland (AZ) El Larabee (MA) Kaylyn Lau (TX) Nora Maier (IL) Lauren Marchand (NY) Joshua Mckiver (GA) Kyla O’Deay (LA) Abby Olson (CA) Amanda Phillips (MA) Marlee Rossero (OH) Amanda Spotts (PA) Charlotte Teeples (VA) Georgia Thomas (GA) Anna Gray Thompson (SC) Kirsten Tierney (VA) Hannah Tramonte (OH) Anna Beth Trueblood (MO) Olivia Ustinovich (MA) Isabella Vázquez-Janik (PA) Nick Vitale (NJ) Lila Wagner-Gleeson (OH) Sophia Welch (VA) Kenna Wells (NC) Amelia Williams (FL) Jackson Wood (AZ) Young Adult Voices Ages 18-23 (as of February 1, 2022) Enrollment in a school is not required in this category, nor is a voice teacher, but if the singer provided that information it appears below. First Place Abigail Storm (age 20) Austin, TX Ball State University Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Voice Teacher: Beth Truitt Second Place (tie) Ashlyn Combs (age 22) Lexington, SC Winthrop University Hal Leonard Recorded Accompaniment Natalie Doppelt (age 22) Riverwoods, IL University of Pennsylvania Pianist: Lisa Harer de Calvo Voice Teacher: Lisa Harer de Calvo Third Place (tie) Aminata Jalloh (age 20) Powder Springs, GA Reinhardt University Pianist: Melanie Williams Voice Teacher: Reverie Berger Emily Kars (age 19) Kincheloe, MI Huntington University Pianist: Stephanie See Voice Teacher: Joni Killian Honorable Mentions Te’Jah Beaton (age 20) North Charleston, SC Beck Chandler (age 21) Columbia, SC Karen Covarrubias (age 20) Keene, TX Matthew Danforth (age 18) Demarest, NJ Taylor McCullough (age 18) Kingstree, SC Blake Stevenson (age 22) San Juan Capistrano, CA Finalists Preston Anderson (LA) Diego Bly (VA) Luke Capello (MA) Arianna Dreher (NY) Katelyn Farebrother (WI) Carissa Ferguson (FL) Margot Frank (IL) Melaina Furgeson (NY) Samantha Grasso (NJ) Alexandra Lagos (VA) Katie OShields (MD) Joshua Parga (SC) Chris Richie (OK) Celina Sasso (NV) Abigail Smith (SC) Caitlin Towell (IL) Back To Top
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