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20th Century French Art Songs | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Online - French Art Songs 20th CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968). 20TH CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
Disney's High School Musical Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by David Simpatico Songs by Matthew Gerrard & Robbie Nevil; Ray Cham, Greg Cham & Andrew Seeley; Randy Petersen & Kevin Quinn; Andy Dodd & Adam Watts; Bryan Louiselle; David N. Lawrence & Faye Greenberg; Jamie Houston Music Adapted, Arranged and Produced by Bryan Louiselle Based on a Disney Channel Movie Written by Peter Barsocchini Overview / Synopsis One of the biggest pop-culture phenomena in recent memory, High School Musical topped the music charts and broke records within weeks of its 2006 Disney Channel premiere. Follow the antics of East High's most popular student as they come alive on your stage in this fun-tastic, family-friendly show that only Disney can bring you. Get'cha head in the game! Audio Sampler - HL00287703 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00287704 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets Production Handbook Cross-Curricular Book 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00287697 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00287696 - Director's Guide $100.00 00287694 - Actor's Book (Single) $10.00 00287695 - Actor's Book (10-Pak) $75.00 00287698 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00287702 - Media Disc $10.00 00287701 - Choregraphy DVD $50.00 00287699 - Student Rehearsal CD (Single) $10.00 00287700 - Student Rehearsal CD (20-Pak) $100.00 00287703 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Scene 1 Wildcat Cheer [All] Start of Something New [Troy, Gabriella, All] Scene 4 Get'cha Head in the Game [Troy, Jocks] Get'cha Head in the Game (Playoff) [Troy, Jocks] Scene 7 Auditions (Bop to the Top / What I've Been Looking For) [All] What I've Been Looking For [Ryan, Sharpay] What I've Been Looking For (Reprise) [Troy, Gabriella] Scene 9 Stick to the Status Quo [All] Scene 14 Counting On You [Chad, Taylor, Zeke, Martha, Brainiacs, Jocks] Scene 16 We're All in This Together [All] Scene 17 Bop to the Top [Sharpay, Ryan, Jocks, Brainiacs, All] Breaking Free [Troy, Gabriella, All] Scene 18 We're All in This Together (Reprise) [All] Bows High School Musical Megamix [All] TROY BOLTON Troy Bolton, the most popular kid at East High, is the star of the basketball team who yearns to be more than what people want him to be. Troy discovers he loves to sing, but is afraid to admit it to his friends. Look for a solid young actor who can convey the full range of emotions and character traits Troy Bolton embodies: athletic, independent, sometimes shy, smitten with Gabriella, a true leader. Troy should be your strongest male singer and able to sing from his heart in a naïve yet convincing manner. He should also be able to move like a natural athlete while dancing and singing. JACK SCOTT Jack Scott is the nerdy school announcer who trips over his own feet. Think about casting a student who will make this role his own and can portray a "gift of gab" radio voice. Jack can be quirky in all aspects: looks, dress and comportment. Most importantly, look for a character actor with superior diction and good comic timing. CHAD DANFORTH Chad Danforth is a hot-wired jock, second in command to Troy. He is focused on winning his school's basketball championship, but is slowly understanding that there might be more to this world, including his sparring crush on Taylor. Look for an actor that partners naturally with Troy, is a leader in his own accord, and can handle Chad's couple of solos and large number of acting scenes. RYAN EVANS Ryan Evans is Sharpay's fraternal twin and a star in the making. This character loves singing, dancing and lots of attention. He follows Sharpay's orders, but wants to break free from her shadow. Choose a "triple threat" for this actor: strong singer, dancer and actor. Everything Ryan does is calculated and executed impeccably. It will probably be helpful to audition Ryan and Sharpay in pairs as the success of "Bop to the Top" depends on the duo. ZEKE BAYLOR Zeke Baylor is a basketball player on the Wildcats Team. He has two secrets: a crush on Sharpay and a love for baking! Zeke and Chad are the most prominent of Troy's friends, so look for an actor that can work with them while being able to stand out in his own spotlight, especially when he reveals his secrets! Zeke has solos, so make sure your actor can sing as well as act. COACH BOLTON Coach Bolton is the stern basketball coach and Troy's dad. He lost the big game years ago and wants a second chance through his son. Cast a student that can handle the demands of acting older than almost everyone else in the show. Coach Bolton is primarily an acting role, so focus on finding a student who can convincingly spar with Ms. Darbus. GABRIELLA MONTEZ Gabriella Montez is the new girl in school. Gabriella is intelligent, pretty ("girl next door" type) and shy. She possesses a fantastic voice when she sings with Troy. Look for a girl that can take positive risks with both her acting and singing. She must be able to portray her intelligence and independence and then easily switch over to her shy and vulnerable side. Cast an actress with a strong sense of pitch and the ability to hold her own with a partner in order to make the most of this role. Make sure a portion of your audition is seeing your potential Troys and Gabriellas as a pair. TAYLOR MCKESSIE Taylor McKessie, the head Brainiac of the school, is the president of the Science Club. She wants Gabriella to join the Science Decathlon team so they can finally win the competition. Taylor has a hidden soft spot for Chad, which might be why she is always making fun of him. Cast a girl that can portray Taylor's assertiveness as well as sing a solid solo. SHARPAY EVANS Sharpay Evans is the egocentric star of the school musicals. She is Ryan's older twin (and the alpha dog of the two) and has a mad crush on Troy. Sharpay has never met a mirror she didn't like. Look for someone who can portray a diva and has solid acting chops and strong singing and dancing skills. Sharpay knows how to work a crowd. She is in a good number of scenes, so cast an actress that can handle this sizable role. MARTHA COX Martha Cox is a proud member of the Science Club and is brainy with a secret love of dancing. She has a fun-loving sidekicky personality and becomes an adoring devotee of Gabriella. Cast an actor who is kind and funny. The role has important featured solos but the voice quality is not as important as the character. If you have a student that can show off some crazy brake dancing moves, bravo! Brava! KELSI NIELSEN Kelsi Nielsen is a thespian rehearsal pianist and student composer extraordinaire. Underneath her shy demeanor, Kelsi has no tolerance for people (read: Sharpay) who use their talent only to be number one. Cast an actor who can play the underdog but has the intelligence and ability to shoot the "zingers" at Sharpay with timing and accuracy. She must be coached to look like a pianist as she continually accompanies onstage. Kelsi has a small solo in "We're All in This Together," but it is secondary to her acting importance. The "group hug" with Troy and Gabriella has unbeatable charm if you cast a student who is smaller than the other two. MS. DARBUS Ms. Darbus is the eccentric drama teacher. She is an amusing blend of Gertrude Stein and Ethel Merman. Passionate and disciplined, she is always trying to expose students to the enrichment and fun of theatre. Cast an actress who knows how to milk every word, phrase and gesture for this role. She must make her eccentricities appear second nature. Ms. Darbus's acting skills and timing should be topnotch; her singing voice is secondary as she has no solos. Ms. Darbus exudes wacky, yet it doesn't detract from her true love of theatre and her students. ENSEMBLE The ensemble makes up all the other characters who populate East High School: Jocks, Brainiacs, Thespians, Skater Dudes, Cheerleaders, Ms. Tenny, Science Decathlon Moderator, etc., with a few featured solo parts further described below. The ensemble is present throughout the show and provides the vocal power for the group numbers. These roles vary in size and in vocal, acting and dance requirements, so you can cast performers with a wide range of abilities. The ensemble participates in several self-contained numbers, which provide great opportunities to use groups of students that can rehearse together. (For example, the sixthgrade chorus in one number, the seventh-grade classes in another, etc.) Don't be afraid to mix your age groups here. Look for students whose enthusiasm and ability to take direction can allow your ensemble to look like a perfect representation of your school and community. RIPPER Ripper is a cool skater dude who is, lo and behold, a cello player! Cast a student who can sell this fun "double personality" with one short but sweet air cello solo!   In the big Audition scene, JAMES is the auditionee who sings so badly off key it would scare anyone! Cast a person who can confidently sound bad... this can be a challenge for a good musician. SUSAN is the "pop star wanna be" audition candidate. Cast someone who is not afraid to go over-the-top with this short yet humorous part. CATHY is the auditionee who can belt like Ethel Merman! Cast a student that can fill the auditorium with her voice. It doesn't need to be pretty! CYNDRA is the final auditionee and she sounds like an opera audition for the Met. If you have a young singer that can imitate an obnoxious vibrato in a serious manner, there's your perfect choice!
Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. is not available for licensing at this time. MTI and the authors are refurbishing the materials, please check back for updates. Credits Book by Richard Morris and Dick Scanlan New Music by Jeanine Tesori New Lyrics by Dick Scanlan Overview / Synopsis Thoroughly Modern Millie is the zany new 1920's musical romp that will have everyone dancing the Charleston! Taking place in New York City in 1922, Thoroughly Modern Millie tells the story of young Millie Dillmount, who has just moved to the city in search of a new life for herself. It's a New York full of intrigue and jazz - a time when women were entering the workforce and the rules of love and social behavior were changing forever. Filled with frisky flappers, dashing leading men and a dragon-lady of a villainess audiences will love to hate, you'll present a perfectly constructed evening of madcap merriment. Songs include: Not for the Life of Me / Thoroughly Modern Millie, Not for the Life of Me (Tag), Not for the Life of Me (Reprise), The Speed Test, What Do I Need With Love, Jimmy, Back at Work, Forget About the Boy, Ah! Sweet Mystery of Life / I'm Falling in Love with Someone, I Turned the Corner, Muqin, Long As I'm Here With You, Gimme Gimme, The Speed Test (Reprise), Ah! Sweet Mystery (Reprise), Finale. Audio Sampler - HL08750921 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971362 $600.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets Production Handbook Cross-Curricular Book 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971364 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971365 - Director's Script $50.00 09971363 - Libretto/Vocal Book $10.00 09971367 - Libretto/Vocal Book 10 Pak $75.00 09971358 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971366 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971369 - Student Rehearsal CDs $10.00 09971370 - Student Rehearsal CDs 20 Pak $100.00 08750921 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. is not available for licensing at this time. MTI and the authors are refurbishing the materials, please check back for updates. Hear A Sample Not for the Life of Me/Thoroughly Modern Millie Not for the Life of Me (Tag) Not for the Life of Me (Reprise) The Speed Test What Do I Need with Love Jimmy Back At Work Forget About the Boy Ah! Sweet Mystery of Life / I'm Falling in Love with Someone I Turned the Corner Mugin Long as I'm Here with You Gimme Gimme Gimme Gimme (Tag) The Speed Test (Reprise) Ah! Sweet Mystery (Reprise) Finale Bows Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. is not available for licensing at this time. MTI and the authors are refurbishing the materials, please check back for updates. Millie Millie is the sweet, classic ing�nue with pluck. The role requires excellent vocal chops; in fact, no other character in the Broadway Junior collection of shows sings as much as Millie. The role of Millie is the perfect star turn for that extra special performer. Cast a young woman with an excellent Broadway style voice with lots of stamina. Millie must also have charisma, a great sense of comedy, good acting skills and be able to hold her own as a dancer. Jimmy Jimmy is our male counterpart to Millie. Self-assured and cocky, cast a Jimmy who is charming, a great singer, a reasonable mover and who has a good sense of comic timing. Jimmy should be attractive in a cute, goofy sort of way. Mrs. Meers Mrs. Meers is the villain of our story. Think Cruella DeVille meets Miss Hannigan. Cast an over-the-top "scenery chewer" who has an excellent sense of comedic timing. Miss Dorothy Miss Dorothy is the perfect role for a young lady with a voice that is more classical than Broadway. She should be attractive, a good actress and should contrast physically with Millie. Miss Flannery Miss Flannery is the office manager. She's uptight (think librarian) and stern, a real no-nonsense kind of gal. Cast an up-and-comer who's not quite ready for a huge lead, but is definitely ready to break out of the chorus. Having tap skills and a good sense of comedy are definite pluses for this gem of a role. Ching Ho and Bun Foo Ching Ho and Bun Foo are brothers and emigrants from China. These two are working to bring their dear mother to the United States from China. While it's nice to cast performers of Asian descent in these roles, it is not always possible. These characters must learn some Chinese, so cast kids who live for great challenges and have a keen sense of adventure. Ching Ho must be played by a boy and is the more demanding role; Bun Foo can be played by a girl. These characters sing, dance, and act, all in Chinese. Trevor Graydon Trevor Graydon the Third is Millie's boss and she's determined to marry him. Cast your best-looking singer who's not afraid to be a bit of a goof ball. The Hotel Priscilla Girls The Hotel Priscilla Girls, are the fellow boarders at the Hotel Priscilla. If possible vary them widely in size, shape, color and attitude. They should be good singers and actresses. The girls with solo lines include: Ruth Gloria Rita Alice Cora Lucille Ethel Peas Mama Mama is Ching Ho and Bun Foo's mother from China. She makes a surprise cameo appearance during the finale of the show. This is a great walk-on part for the principal, a local celebrity or parent. No singing, no dancing involved. Ensemble The cast can be expanded in many ways and in many places. You can augment the ladies staying at the Hotel Priscilla. Street scenes, the speakeasy, the jail scene, etc. offer innumerable opportunities for many, many students to participate.
Disney's Beauty And The Beast Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Alan Menken Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice Book by Linda Woolverton Overview / Synopsis Based on the original Broadway production that ran for over thirteen years and was nominated for nine Tony Awards, and the Academy Award-winning motion picture, Disney's Beauty and the Beast JR. is a fantastic adaptation of the story of transformation and tolerance. Disney's Beauty and the Beast JR. features some of the most popular songs ever written by Alan Menken and the late Howard Ashman, along with new songs by Mr. Menken and Tim Rice. Audio Sampler - HL00403278 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00403279 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide Choreography Videos Guide Vocal Tracks Performance Accompaniment Tracks Logo Pack (Coming Soon!) 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00403269 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00403268 - Director's Guide $100.00 00403273 - Libretto/Vocal Score $10.00 00403274 - Libretto/Vocal Score 10 Pak $75.00 00403278 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample MUSICAL NUMBERS Prologue Belle Maurice's Entrance Into the Forest Stranger in the House Maurice and the Beast Belle (Reprise) You Follow Me! Home Home (Tag) Gaston Gaston (Reprise) Be Our Guest Something There Human Again Beauty and the Beast The Mob Song The Battle Fight in the West Wing Home (Reprise) Transformation Finale Bows Cast of Characters Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers) Cast Type: Star Vehicle Female Dance Requirements: Standard Belle Belle is a smart, confident young woman from a small village. You will want a strong singer and actress who is able to stand up to Gaston while showing compassion for Maurice, the Servants and eventually the Beast. If there are several female students in your school who could perform the role, consider casting two girls to play Belle on alternating nights. Gender: Female Vocal range top: F5 Vocal range bottom: G3 Beast The Beast is a young prince who was hideously transformed by the Enchantress's spell. Casting for size is not as important as choosing a student who can handle this complex character: a dictator, a hurt child, a hero, a defender and a smitten prince. Cast an actor who can deliver a range of conflicting emotional states. Although the Beast does sing a small bit during "Something There" and the "Finale," this is truly an acting role (and his lyrics can be spoken if you cast a non-singer). If you choose to cast the Prince separately from the Beast, the Prince would end up singing the Beast's lines in the "Finale." Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: B3 Narrators The Narrators provide great opportunities to involve students who are more comfortable speaking than singing. The script is written to feature four Narrators, but you can incorporate more students (or fewer) depending on the size of your cast. Be sure the students you choose for these roles can enunciate and project, as they guide the focus and pace of this beautiful tale. These roles are non-singing, but the actors can also be a part of your ensemble. Gender: Any Old Beggar Woman/Enchantress The Old Beggar Woman/Enchantress should be portrayed by an actor with a flair for the visually dramatic as this is a non-speaking role. Her transformation in the Prologue needs to entice the audience into the story. After the Prologue, this student may join the ensemble as a Villager or castle Servant. Gender: Female Gaston Gaston is pompous and dim-witted and will do whatever it takes to win Belle's hand. Gaston has all the confidence in the world but lacks the humility to balance it. Finding a strong singer and actor is more important than physical size and stature for this role. He has to be able to sell his big eponymous number with gusto and arrogance as well as lead the Villagers in "The Mob Song." Biceps can be added to the costume, but the bravura needs to come from within. Gender: Male Vocal range top: F5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Maurice Maurice is an aging and eccentric inventor, but more importantly, the adoring and protective father of Belle. This non-solo singing role is perfect for the student who can have fun interpreting this crazy old man while conveying some very strong emotions: fear and fatherly love. Gender: Male Lefou Lefou is Gaston's equally dim-witted lackey. This character needs to be Gaston's foil and should double the laughs for them both. Consider auditioning Lefou and Gaston in pairs to find the right chemistry. Lefou should be able to sing, act and dance. Choose a student who has some gymnastics training if you wish to embed tumbling into Lefou's movement. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: B3 Les Filles De La Ville Les Filles De La Ville are in love with Gaston and will do almost anything just to be near him. Look for three girls who can portray the comic nature of these roles and enjoy playing off each other. Les Filles De La Ville sing together in three numbers and their sound should mix well. Gender: Female Vocal range top: F5 Vocal range bottom: C4 Lumiere Lumiere is a confident, charming French mâitre d who (under the enchantress's spell) is becoming a candelabra. He has an incessant bickering rapport with Cogsworth, so consider auditioning in pairs to find a good fit. Lumiere should be a strong singer who can light up the stage in "Be Our Guest." If you have a student who can handle the French accent, fantastic! This role covers a range of emotions (from charming entertainer to brave soldier) and requires prominent song and dance, so try to cast a strong, versatile performer.is a self-confident, charming, French mâitre d' who (under the Enhantress's spell) is becoming a candelabra. He has a never-ending give-and-take with Cogsworth, so the student playing Lumiere must work well with the child you cast for that role. Consider auditioning in pairs. Lumiere should be a strong singer who can "light up" the stage in "Be Our Guest." If you have a child who can handle the French accent, fantastic! This role covers a range of emotions (from charming entertainer to brave soldier) and requires prominent song and dance, so try to cast a strong, reliable performer. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Cogsworth Cogsworth is the British major-domo of the castle who is becoming a clock. Like all of the castle's Servants, he shows a fatherly compassion for Belle yet is perfectly submissive to the master, the Beast. Cogsworth enjoys feeling like the boss and has no problem getting into it with Lumiere. Cast a strong actor and singer who can act in charge. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Mrs. Potts Mrs. Potts is the castle's endearing cook who is becoming a teapot. The actor you cast needs a strong, sweet voice and should be able to convey comforting, maternal qualities amidst the chaos that is breaking out in the castle. Look for a student who can play a loving mother figure to all the characters. Gender: Female Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: F3 Chip Chip is Mrs. Potts's son who is becoming a teacup. You may cast a younger student for this role, but it is not imperative. Chip has a wonderful naïveté that endears him to all of the Servants. Cast an actor who can portray the honesty and spirit of a child and is comfortable trying to sing Chip's few solo lines. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: D4 Madame De La Grande Bouche Madame De La Grande Bouche is an opera singer who is becoming a wardrobe. Madame is larger-than-life in everything she does, including her singing and dancing. Look for that student who can portray the ultimate diva with a heart with an outsized personality and voice. Madame has some harmony lines with Mrs. Potts and Babette, so cast a singer who can hold her own but knows when to pull back in order to sound good with the others. Gender: Female Vocal range top: C5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Babette Babette is the maid of the castle who is turning into a feather duster. She misses the finer things in life. Babette is happy to be at Belle's service at a moment's notice, but her true heart comes through in Human Again. Look for a good actor with solid vocal skills to handle Babette's harmonies. Gender: Female Vocal range top: B4 Vocal range bottom: A3 Monsieur D'Arque Monsieur D'Arque is a sinister townsman who works for Gaston. Cast an actor who can believably exude his sinister personality. Although Monsieur D'Arque has few lines of solo singing in "The Mob Song," this is primarily a non-singing role, so look for a solid actor first. Monsieur D'Arque can double as a Servant in the rest of the show. Gender: Male Servants The Servants of the castle can include Statues, a Dust Pan, Flatware, Plates, an Egg Timer, Napkins, a Carpet, Salt & Pepper Shakers and any other household (or castle hold items) you and your cast can imagine. These enchanted characters are the Rockettes of the castle. They should be able to handle a potentially awkward costume while singing and dancing in two big production numbers. These roles can also accommodate multiple ages if you are looking to augment your cast with some young students. Gender: Any Villagers The Villagers are the inhabitants of Belle's town. There are some featured solos and lines that will come from this ensemble (Bookseller, Baker, etc.). The group must provide vocal power throughout the show and dance in the production numbers, so be sure to cast performers with a wide base of ability. These actors can double as the castle Servants if needed. Gender: Any
Disney's Moana Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music and lyrics by Opetaia Foa'I, Mark Mancina & Lin-Manuel Miranda Book adapted by Susan Soon He Stanton Music & Orchestrations adapted and arranged by Ian Weinberger Overview / Synopsis Disney's Moana JR. is a 60-minute musical adaptation of the 2016 Disney animated film, bringing the adventures of Moana and her village of Motunui to life onstage. Moana JR. features all the beloved songs from the film, written by Tony®, GRAMMY, Emmy, and Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Lin-Manuel Miranda, Opetaia Foa'i, and Mark Mancina, including "How Far I'll Go," "Shiny," and "You're Welcome." This thrilling and heartwarming coming-of-age story follows the strong-willed Moana as she sets sail across the Pacific to save her village and discover the truth about her heritage. Moana and the legendary demigod Maui embark on an epic journey of self-discovery and camaraderie as both learn to harness the power that lies within. With empowering messages of bravery and selflessness, Moana JR. is sure to bring out the hero within each of us. Celebrating the rich history of Oceania and based on the beliefs and cultures of the people of the Pacific Islands, Moana was developed in collaboration with an Oceanic Trust - a group of anthropologists, cultural practitioners, historians, linguists, and choreographers from the Pacific Islands. The same respect and attention to detail used to develop the film was carried forward in the creation of this stage adaptation, with a host of cultural resources available in the ShowKit® materials Audio Sampler - HL00303981 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00303985 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Performance/Accompaniment & Guide Vocal Audio (Digital Only) Choreography Videos (Digital Only) Downloadable Media Resources (Digital Only) Digital Delivery Update Now you can receive digital access to many of the ShowKit components you know and love. Look forward to easily distributing these crucial components to your cast and creative team: Performance Accompaniment Tracks and Guide Vocal Tracks (Formerly Accompaniment CD & Rehearsal CD, respectively) will now be delivered together as a digital download and easily shared with your entire team, cast, and crew Choreography Videos (formerly the Choreography DVD) will be available to stream directly from mtishows.com. Now not only your choreographer but the entire cast will have access to fantastic step-by-step instruction for every Broadway Junior title! Downloadable Resources (formerly the Resources (or Media) Disc), including Audition Materials, a customizable press release, program and other helpful templates, and more can all be accessed with a click of a button 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00303976 - Director's Guide $100.00 00303978 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00303979 - Actor's Script $10.00 00303980 - Actor's Script 10-Pak $75.00 00303981 - Audio Sampler $10.00 In the Beginning... Tulou Tagaloa Where You Are (Part 1) Where You Are (Part 2) How Far I'll Go We Know the Way Where You Are (Reprise) How Far I'll Go (Reprise) You're Welcome Warrior Face (Part 1) Warrior Face (Part 2) Warrior Face (Part 3) Shiny (Part 1) Shiny (Part 2) Song of the Ancestors Warrior Face (Reprise) / Logo Te Pate Know Who You Are Te Fiti Restored Tulou Tagaloa (Reprise) We Know the Way (Reprise) Moana The vibrant, tenacious, and optimistic daughter of Motunui's chief. She struggles to reconcile her father's plans for her to take over as the village chief with her own desires to voyage beyond the reef. Ultimately, Moana proves a compassionate and capable leader. Cast an actor who can portray great maturity, possesses incredible energy, a fun sense of humor, and can confidently deliver songs like "How Far I'll Go." Gender: Female Range: D5 - G3 Maui A demigod and master wayfinder with charisma to spare and a reputation of being a trickster. Despite his hard exterior, Maui becomes a wonderful friend and mentor to Moana throughout their journey. Cast an actor with great comic timing who can portray this shapeshifter's larger-than-life personality through big gestures and high energy, making moments like "You're Welcome" true showstoppers. Note: The character Maui is based on the fabled Pacific Island demigod, so proceed with respect and caution in costuming and portrayal. Gender: Male Range: B3 - G2 Chief Ancestors (1-3) Chief Ancestors (1-3) are the three ancient leaders of Motunui. They guide Moana on her quest and narrate her story through speaking and singing solos. These ancestors should be animated storytellers who have excellent diction. Range: A4 - G3 Gramma Tala Moana's wise grandmother and the mother of Chief Tui. She is the village storyteller known for being eccentric and dancing to the beat of her own drum. Look for a playful actor and singer who can balance comic timing in "Where You Are (Part 2)" with heartfelt sincerity in "Song of the Ancestors." Gender: Female Range: B4 - G3 Chief Tui The proud leader of Motunui and Moana's father. He prioritizes the safety of his people and his family. For this beloved and respected ruler, cast a mature and poised actor who can sing very well. After Chief Tui's scenes at the top of the show, the actor can join the Maui, Monster, and/or Shiny ensembles before returning to this primary role at the show's end. Gender: Male Range: A#2 - E2 Sina Moana's supportive mother. She is compassionate, perceptive, and strong-willed, and trusts her daughter to make the right decisions. With both speaking and singing solos, look for a confident singer and actor who can embody a mature and respected leader. After Sina's scenes at the top of the show, the actor can join the Maui, Monster, and/or Shiny ensembles before returning to this primary role at the show's end. Gender: Female Range: C#5 - C#4 Pua Moana's fiercely loyal friend. Pua always supports Moana - even if it means facing her own fears. An actor who is also a confident singer can make Pua's moments in "Where You Are (Part 2),""How Far I'll Go," and "We Know the Way (Finale)" stand out. Range: C#5 - B3 Hei Hei Moana's not-so-bright friend. Hei Hei is well- meaning, but naive. Cast an actor who can portray Hei Hei's innocence and own both speaking and singing solos in "Where You Are (Part 2),""How Far I'll Go," and "We Know the Way (Finale)." Range: C#5 - B3 Tamatoa The vicious and egotistical giant crab who lives in Lalotai, the Realm of Monsters. Tamatoa enjoys gathering shiny baubles to add to an ever-growing collection. For this self-centered crab with a keen sense of showmanship, cast an actor who isn't afraid to own the stage and really shine. Range: B4 - B3 Ensemble Ensemble roles include Ancestor Ensemble, Ocean Ensemble, Villagers (Dancers, Weavers, Fishers 1 & 2), Maui Ensemble, Monsters, Gate Monster, Left Claw, Right Claw, Shiny Ensemble, Te Fiti, Te Kā
Disney's My Son Pinocchio Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Book by David Stern Overview / Synopsis My Son Pinocchio: Geppetto's Musical Tale is a light-hearted spin on the classic Pinocchio story. Once the Blue Fairy grants Geppetto his wish for a new son, the new father finds his parenting skills are a bit rough. With a book by David Stern, Academy Award®-winning composer Stephen Schwartz creates an original score expanded from Disney's Geppetto, the live-action TV movie starring Drew Carey, and paired with much loved songs from Disney's animated feature Pinocchio. Audio Sampler - HL00112989 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00113001 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00112980 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00112979 - Director's Script $100.00 00112981 - Actor's Script $10.00 00112982 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 00112984 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $50.00 00112987 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00112985 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00112986 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 00112988 - Media Disc $10.00 00112989 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample When You Wish Upon A Star (Part 1) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue, The Blue Fairy] When You Wish Upon A Star (Part 2) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue, The Blue Fairy] Toys [Geppetto, Town Children, Town Mothers, Town Fathers] Empty Heart [Geppetto] Rise and Shine (Part 1) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 1) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Geppetto and Son (Part 2) [Geppetto] Rise and Shine (Part 2) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 3) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Rise and Shine (Part 3) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 4) [Geppetto] When You Wish Upon A Star (Reprise) [Pinocchio] Geppetto's Music Box [Geppetto] I've Got No Strings [Pinocchio, Marionettes] Bravo Stromboli [Stromboli, Marionettes] Just Because It's Magic [The Blue Fairy, Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 1) [Talia, Maria, Professore Buonragazzo] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 2) [Boy 1] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 3) [Boy 2, Junior, Professore Buonragazzo, Company] Bravo Stromboli (Reprise) [Stomboli, Marionettes] Pleasure Island (Part 1) [Ringleader, Roustabouts] Pleasure Island (Part 2) [Ringleader] Geppetto and Son (Whale Reprise) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Since I Gave My Heart Away (Part 1) [Geppetto,Fairies in Training] Since I Gave My Heart Away (Part 2) [Geppetto,The Blue Fairy, Company] Bows [Company] ANIMALS Animals (Pig, Foxes, Horse) serve as voices of reason for Geppetto's journey. Performers cast in these roles do not have to sing; however, comic timing and deadpan delivery are essential. These performers should be comfortable inhabiting the mismatched animals they portray. BERNARDO & MARIA Bernardo & Maria are married residents of Idyllia who are looking to purchase a "perfect" daughter from Professore Buonragazzo. These roles require group singing only. These performers can become part of the ensemble in other group numbers. THE BLUE FAIRY The Blue Fairy is convinced of her own perfection and does not like having it called into question. The performer you cast should have good comedic instincts and a solid singing voice. This role does not require excessive dancing. Range: G3 - E5 BOY 1 Boy 1 is one of three spokespeople for a group of traveling singers. They are larger than life as they spread joy throughout Rainbow Valley with their songs.Boy 1 is the first replacement for Pinocchio, created by Professore Buonragazzo's machine. Find an actor who can mimic a comedic version of the famous puppet. Range: C3 - C4 BOY 2 Boy 2 is the second replacement for Pinocchio. He should be even more wooden than Boy 1. Range: C3 - C4 CHILDREN OF IDYLLIA Children of Idyllia (Amelia, Salvatore, Carla, Lucia, Giuseppe, Boy 1, Boy 2) are the perfect children created by Professore Buonragazzo. Performers cast in these roles should be able to sing in groups, with featured speaking lines. There are great opportunities for movement and dance. DELINQUENTS Delinquents (Malvolio, Brutto, Sporco, others) can expand to include more performers and are great roles for non-singers. Also, they must be comfortable turning into donkeys. GEPPETTO Geppetto A Sharecropper who bids his time until he can go away to college. He has a quiet strength.Geppetto is a lonely toymaker who longs to be a father. Look for a mature performer who feels comfortable playing a parent to Pinocchio and isn't afraid of showing emotion. Cast a strong singer, as Geppetto has several solos. Range: Bb3 - F5 JUNIOR Junior is Professore Buonragazzo's mirrorimage assistant, created using the child-making machine. The performer in this role will need to work closely with the performer playing the Professor to mimic his movements. A short solo is required, but it can be spoken if necessary. Range: Bb3 - C#5 MARIONETTES Marionettes are the stringed puppets in Stromboli's show. There are solos available for marionettes, if you choose to separate their voices from Stromboli. Marionettes can be added as need to the ensemble. Range: Bb3 - E5 PINOCCHIO Pinocchio is a wooden puppet who doesn't know where he belongs. Look for a performer who can handle the lively personality of a little boy while also capturing tender moments. Although Pinocchio is a boy, the role can be played by a boy or girl. Pinocchio has a few solos, but a strong character actor can easily act through them. Range: G3 - E5 PROFESSORE BUONGRAZZO Professore Buongrazzo is a passionate, mad scientist obsessed with building perfect children. While some solos are required, character work is most important for this role. Range: Bb3 - C#4 THE RINGLEADER The Ringleader runs Pleasure Island. The performer playing this role should have a real sense of showmanship. This role requires some singing and is a great opportunity to showcase a dancer. The Ringleader can be played by a boy or a girl, but be sure to cast a performer who can commit to the character's mischievous ways. Range: A3 - E5 ROSA, VIOLA & ARANCIA Rosa, Viola & Arancia, fairies in training, are sweet and kind. The performers in these roles should be expressive observers since they often oversee the action occurring onstage during flashbacks. They sing as a group, often alongside the Blue Fairy. Their individual distinctions from one another can be discovered during rehearsal. ROUSTABOUTS Roustabouts are the sidekicks to Pleasure Island's Ringleader. When performing these roles, personality is key. Group singing is required. SIGNORA GIOVANNI Signora Giovaani is Pinocchio's teacher. The role can be a great opportunity to feature a performer who doesn't sing. If needed, this performer can become part of the ensemble in other group numbers. STROMBOLI Stromboli is a bumbling, loud, incompetent puppeteer who has at least a few screws loose. Cast a versatile performer who can create silly voices to take this character and his marionettes over-the-top. Stromboli's songs are challenging, so look for someone who is comfortable with his solos and doesn't shy away from silliness. Range: Bb3 - F5 SUE Sue is a fairy in training who marches to the beat of her own drum. She isn't your typical fairy, as sweetness isn't in her nature. The performer in this role can be brooding or brash, but certainly a contrast to Rosa, Viola and Arancia, although vocally she should blend in. TALIA Talia is the "perfect child" created for Maria and Bernardo by Professore Buonragazzo's machine. Talia sings and dances to impress her parents, so this is a great role to feature a dancer. Range: C3 - C4 THE TOWN CHILDREN The Town Children (Dante, Agata, Fiorello, Francesca, Adriana, Luigi, Gina, Lia, Rico) love the toys in Geppetto's shop. The performers cast in these roles should be able to create individual personalities for their characters. There are opportunities for solos, but performers can sing in groups. TOWN PARENTS Town Parents (Signora Lisi, Signore Fucito, Signora Mancini, Signor Alcamo, Signora Sommelia, Signora Contrastana, Signora Rosati, Signore Proto, Signore Marino) are the beleaguered mothers and judgmental fathers of the town children. The performers cast in these roles should be able to create individual personalities for their characters. There are opportunities for solos, but performers can sing in groups.
Music Man Kids - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Meredith Willson Music and Lyrics by Meredith Willson Based on a story by Meredith Willson and Franklin Lacey. Overview / Synopsis Based on Meredith Willson's six-time-Tony-Award-winning musical comedy, The Music Man KIDS features some of musical theatre's most iconic songs and a story filled with wit, warmth and good old-fashioned romance. The Music Man KIDS is family entertainment at its best � a bold, brassy show that will have the whole town atwitter! Master showman Harold Hill is in town and he's got "seventy-six trombones" in tow. Can upright, uptight Marian, the town librarian, resist his powerful allure? The story follows fast-talking traveling salesman, Harold Hill, as he cons the people of River City, Iowa, into buying instruments and uniforms for a boys' band he vows to organize. The catch? He doesn't know a trombone from a treble clef. His plans to skip town with the cash are foiled when he falls for Marian, whose belief in Harold's power just might help him succeed in the end in spite of himself. The Music Man KIDS is the perfect vehicle for your young cast, a toe-tapping crowd-pleaser, featuring a soaring soprano ing�nue part and a leading role for a charismatic actor, as well as plenty of roles for kids of every level. Audio Sampler - HL00118347 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00118337 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 1 - Accompaniment and Guide Vocal CD 1 - Choreography DVD 1 - Director's Guide 1 - Media Disk 1 - Piano Vocal Score 30 - Student Books 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 00118338 - Director's Guide $100.00 00118339 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00118340 - Actor's Script $10.00 00118341 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00118342 - Perf/Accomp CD pack $75.00 00118343 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00118344 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00118345 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00118346 - Media Disc $10.00 Hear A Sample Rock Island [Salesmen, Charlie] Iowa Stubborn [Townspeople] Ya Got Trouble (Part 1) [Harold, Townspeople] Ya Got Trouble (Part 2) [Harold, Townspeople] Piano Lesson [Marian, Mrs. Paroo, Amaryllis] Goodnight, My Someone [Marian, Mrs. Paroo, Amaryllis] Seventy-Six Trombones [Harold, Townspeople] Pick-a-Little, Talk-a-Little [Alma, Ethel, Maud, Mrs. Squires, Eulalie] The Wells Fargo Wagon [Townspeople, Winthrop] Shipoopi [Marcellus, Kids] Gary, Indiana [Winthrop, Mrs. Paroo, Marian] Bows [Cast] Harold Hill Harold Hill is a huge role and the essence of The Music Man KIDS. Cast an actor who has charisma and charm and is not afraid to take a positive risk onstage. He should be a good singer and mover and also have excellent acting chops. It is ideal if he has an excellent sense of rhythm. Your harold should pair up well with Marian, and the two together should exude a spark of excitement. Gender: Male Vocal Range: B3-G5 Marian Paroo Marian Paroo begins as an uptight librarian and transforms into a beautiful, trusting young woman. Marian should be a strong singer and actor, and also be able to move well. She must have an air of cofidence that draws Harold to her. Take some time during auditions to try different pairs of Harolds and Marians together until you reach the perfect combination. Gender: Female Vocal Range: G3-G5 Charlie Cowell Charlie Cowell is a Traveling Salesman, and is one of the premium acting-only roles in The Music Man KIDS. If you decide to have the actor playing Charlie also perform in the ensemble, take note to make sure he is not playing Charlie in those scenes. Cast a strong actor with a loud voice. Charlie should have a sense of confidence and love being onstage! Gender: Male Mayor Shinn Mayor Shinn should be able to perform his role as proud politician very seriously, yet have a sense of comic timing. This actor does not have to sung or dance, but is responsible for a great deal of pacing and line pick-ups in the show. Don't be afraid to cast a physically small acotr in this role, provided he can authoritative - it can bring down the house! Gender: Male Eulalie Mackecknie Shinn Eulalie Mackecknie Shinn is a great role for a comic actress! If Eulalie takes herself seriously your audience will find her hysterical. She does have some singing and some moving, but creating a "larger than life" character that works with your Mayor Shinn is essential. Consider contrasting your physically small Mayor Shinn with a tall Eulalie for even more comic brilliance. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D4-D5 Marcellus Washburn Marcellus Washburn is the classic sidekick to Harold. His big number is "Shipoopi," so he should be a good singer, a great actor and be able to dance. Cast a kid who is natually funny and you will have a terrific Marcellus. Gender: Male Vocal Range: E4-D#5 Mrs. Paroo Mrs. Paroo is a good mother, stands up for what she beieves and gently pushes Marian to think of her future. The role requires an actress who can sing and act. However, she deosnt need to have a polished voice - the more character the better! Take into consideration your actress's ability to look maternal with Winthrop and Marian. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Ab3-Eb5 Winthrop Paroo Winthrop Paroo is Marian's shy younger brother who hardly talks because of his pronounced lisp. This is a great role for a young performer who is a good actor. Winthrop transforms from shy to outspoken, and not only sings but dances! Gender: Male Vocal Range: C4-Eb5 Amaryllis Amaryllis is Marian's slightly bratty, young piano student who has a crush on Winthrop. This is a great place to feature a young actor who is not quite ready for a large part, or who doesn't have a strong singing voice. Cast a girl who is a good actor and similar in size to Winthrop and Gracie. Gender: Female Tommy Djilas Tommy Djilas is the teen heartthrob in the show and a non-singing role. Cast a boy that can dance and create a strong character. Tommy's love interest is Zaneeta, so make sure the two characters have chemistry between them. Gender: Male Zaneeta Shinn Zaneeta Shinn is the oldest and slightly daffy daughter of the Mayor and Eulalie. Cast a girl who is a strong dancer. Although this is a non-singing role, a well-ast Zaneeta will gain mileage out of her classic "Ye gads!" line. Gender: Female Gracie Shinn Gracie Shinn is Zaneeta's little sister and the youngest daughter of the Mayor and Eulalie. The actor has few lines of dialogue, and if she is a good singer, she would be a fine choice to sing the first solo in "The Wells Fargo Wagon." Gender: Female Vocal Range: B3-Eb5 Ethel Toffelmier Ethel Toffelmier is Marcellus's girlfriend. She's described by Marcellus as "a nice comfortable girl and the bosses' niece." Ethel has some acting, some singing, and some dancing. Ethel is also one of the solo Pick-a-Little ladies. Make sure she and Marcellus look good together, think Ethel and Fred from I Love Lucy! Gender: Female Vocal Range: D4-D5 Pick-a-little Ladies Pick-a-little Ladies Alma Hix, Maud Dunlop and Mrs. Squires are the gossip queens of River City. These characters need to act, sing and move well. Cast girls with strong voices and a good sense of cominc timing. The supplemental Pick-A-Little ladies are ideal parts for your abundance of girls. Gender: Female Conductor The Conductor has the first line in The Music Man KIDS. This is a non-singing role and perfect for an actor that can be loud and energetic but is not quite ready for a larger part. Gender: Both Constable Locke Constable Locke is River City's chief law enforcement officer. He is a quiet, wise man who sees through Harold, yet doesn't seem to take Harold's antics too seriously. No singing or dancing is required for this role. Gender: Both Townspeople The River City Townspeople are the heart and soul of The Music Man KIDS. The story is about a community of people so assigning your cast into family units is key. Ask each grouping to create a family history, including details of their lives. This will create an ensemble that is engaged and energized. Plan on separating your cast into three groups: aduts, teens and kids. You will immediately recognize that some actors clearly "read" as adults onstage. Try to separate your groups into categories to create a realistic town. Gender: Both Traveling Salesmen The Traveling Salesmen are non-singing roles suited for performers that have a strong rhythmic sense. "Rock Island" is te rap of its time! If you find you need to cast girls as Traveling Salesmen, make sure they play the roles as men. These actors can ouble as ault members of the River City Townspeople. You will need a minimum of five salesmen in addition to Charlie. Gender: Both Wan Tan Ye Girls The Wan Tan Ye Girls are featured during Eulalie's "Spectacle" in Scene 4 prior to "76 Trombones." Cast students who aren't afraid of acting silly. Gender: Female Boys' Band All of your little boys can be in the Boys' Band if you have enough uniforms. If you need to fill out this Boys' Band ensemble with girls, be sure they appear as boys in uniform. Gender: Both
Matilda Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music & Lyrics by Tim Minchin Book by Dennis Kelly Overview / Synopsis Rebellion is nigh in Matilda JR., a gleefully witty ode to the the anarchy of childhood and the power of imagination! This story of a girl who dreams of a better life and the children she inspires will have audiences rooting for the "revolting children" who are out to teach the grown-ups a lesson. Matilda has astonishing wit, intelligence... and special powers! She's unloved by her cruel parents but impresses her schoolteacher, the highly loveable Miss Honey. Matilda's school life isn't completely smooth sailing, however - the school's mean headmistress, Miss Trunchbull, hates children and just loves thinking up new punishments for those who don't abide by her rules. But Matilda has courage and cleverness in equal amounts, and could be the school pupils' saving grace! Packed with high-energy dance numbers and catchy songs, Matilda JR. is a joyous girl power romp. Children and adults alike will be thrilled and delighted by the story of the special little girl with an extraordinary imagination. Audio Sampler - HL00300117 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00300118 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Performance/Accompaniment & Guide Vocal Audio (Digital Only) Choreography Videos (Digital Only) Downloadable Media Resources (Digital Only) Digital Delivery Update Now you can receive digital access to many of the ShowKit components you know and love. Look forward to easily distributing these crucial components to your cast and creative team: Performance Accompaniment Tracks and Guide Vocal Tracks (Formerly Accompaniment CD & Rehearsal CD, respectively) will now be delivered together as a digital download and easily shared with your entire team, cast, and crew Choreography Videos (formerly the Choreography DVD) will be available to stream directly from mtishows.com. Now not only your choreographer but the entire cast will have access to fantastic step-by-step instruction for every Broadway Junior title! Downloadable Resources (formerly the Resources (or Media) Disc), including Audition Materials, a customizable press release, program and other helpful templates, and more can all be accessed with a click of a button 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00300108 - Director's Guide $100.00 00300109 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00300110 - Actor's Script $10.00 00300111 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00300117 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Miracle Naughty Acrobat Story (Part 1) School Song The Hammer Naughty - Superglue (Part 2) The Chokey Chant This Little Girl Bruce (Part 1) When I Grow Up The Smell of Rebellion Quiet Revolting Children Matilda Wormwood The hero of the show. She's brilliant, resilient, creative, and kind, despite growing up in difficult circumstances. Her parents treat her poorly, but Matilda escapes into a world of books, which puts her reading level far above the other children in her class, and she develops a bit of magical power in an effort to defeat Trunchbull. Cast a fantastic singer and great actress in this role who can embody both Matilda's cleverness and her kindness. Gender: Female Range: D5 - Bb5 Eric A student at school with Matilda. He has the very first solo line of the entire show, so make sure to cast a good singer in this role. He also has some featured moments as one of Matilda's schoolmates, so it's helpful if Eric is also an expressive actor. Gender: Male Range: Eb4 - C3 Amanda A student at school with Matilda. She has a few solos and lines, but her most featured moment is when Trunchbull throws her through the air using her pigtails. Cast a good singer and mover in this role. Gender: Female Range: Eb5 - C4 Bruce One of Matilda's schoolmates. He has the bad luck to get caught after eating Trunchbull's cake. Bruce goes through quite a transformation throughout the show and has some important solos, so cast an excellent singer and actor. Keep in mind that just because Bruce eats the cake, it doesn't mean he has to be physically larger than the other children - just cast an actor who can portray Bruce's journey throughout the show. Gender: Male Range: F#4 - C3 Hortensia Alice, Hortensia, and Tommy are classmates of Matilda who each sing solos, and Hortensia has a few lines. These roles are great for good singers and movers who may be newer to the stage. Gender: Female Range: D5 - C4 Alice Alice, Hortensia, and Tommy are classmates of Matilda who each sing solos. These roles are great for good singers and movers who may be newer to the stage. Gender: Female Range: D5 - C4 Tommy Alice, Hortensia, and Tommy are classmates of Matilda who each sing solos. These roles are great for good singers and movers who may be newer to the stage. Gender: Male Range: Eb4 - C3 Lavender One of the kids at school with Matilda. She is kind and bright (though not as brilliant as Matilda) and quickly decides that Matilda is her best friend. Cast an actress in this role who can portray Lavender's likability and friendliness. Gender: Female Range: D5 - C4 Nigel One of the kids at school with Matilda. He is enthusiastic, sweet, and always in a bit of a panic. Nigel has a few solos and some great featured moments in the show, so cast a strong actor and singer in this great supporting role. Gender: Male Range: D4 - C3 Mr. Wormwood Matilda's father. He is egotistical, rude, and not very bright, not to mention a liar. Though Mr. Wormwood is not a good person and he is mean to Matilda, his harebrained schemes can be hilariously funny, so cast a fantastic character actor in this role who can really land the comedy and isn't afraid to play an unlikeable character. It's helpful if Mr. Wormwood reads as older onstage and makes a dynamic pair with Mrs. Wormwood. Gender: Male Mrs. Wormwood Matilda's mother. Like her husband, she dislikes Matilda and does not understand why her daughter loves to read. Mrs. Wormwood is selfish, obsessed with her own appearance, and believes everything she sees on TV. Her dancing lessons with Rudolpho are the most important part of her day. Cast a great actress who can portray Mrs. Wormwood's nastiness but also play up her ridiculousness and lean into the comedy. Gender: Female Michael Matilda's brother. He is not very bright, though he is the apple of his father's eye. This is a hilarious supporting role for a younger actor with comedic timing, as Michael's contributions to the scene usually function as deadpan one-liners. Gender: Male Mrs. Phelps The kindly librarian who loves hearing Matilda's stories. This is a great featured role for a stronger actress who reads as older than Matilda onstage. Gender: Female Escapologist A character of Matilda's creation. Everything this character does is grand and exaggerated - he's performing for the cheap seats! Cast a solid actor and mover in this fun featured role. Gender: Male Range: F3 - E3 Acrobat A product of Matilda's imagination. Cast an actor in this featured role that can give their all! Gender: Female Range: A4 - D4 Miss Honey A teacher at Matilda's school. She is kind, is generous, and really cares about the children despite her own desperate circumstances. Cast an excellent actress and singer who can portray Miss Honey's sweetness and her strength. It's helpful if the actress reads as older than the kids from onstage. Gender: Female Range: D5 - Bb3 Agatha Trunchbull The quintessential terrifying tyrant. As headmistress, she runs her school like a dictator, making up arbitrary rules to suit her every whim and dreaming up creative punishments. The Trunchbull can be played by a male or female (though the character is female). It's helpful if Trunchbull is physically larger than the actors playing children. Cast a fantastic character actor and singer who can command the stage and embody Trunchbull's larger-than-life villainy. Gender: Female Range: F#5 - C4 Rudolpho Mrs. Wormwood's self-obsessed dance teacher. This is a hilarious featured role for a comedic performer who moves well. Gender: Male Sergei A custoner swindled by Mr. Wormwood. Though he shows up looking for payback, Matilda has had quite enough of revenge, and Sergei lets the Wormwoods escape. This is a great featured role for an actor who can embody Sergei's intimidating presence. Gender: Male Ensemble Ensemble roles include Russians, Little Kids, Big Kids (including Big Kid 1, Big Kid 2, and Big Kid 3), Kids, Mums, Dads, the Cook, and the Mechanic.
The Pirates of Penzance Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Music by Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Lyrics by Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Overview / Synopsis Set sail with this classic comedy that boasts one of the most famous patter songs in musical theatre history. The wit and whimsy of Gilbert and Sullivan's classic score is suffused with a modern sensibility in The Pirates of Penzance JR, a swashbuckling musical journey! Set on the rocky coast of Cornwall, England, The Pirates of Penzance JR begins with a group of pirates who are celebrating the birthday of one of their own, Frederic, who has reached his 21st year. Finally having served the full length of his required time with the pirates, he decides to strike off on his own and become an upstanding citizen - which may even mean bringing the pirates to justice. Thus turns out to be a tricky prospect indeed, especially when Frederic's freedom is called into question! The Pirates of Penzance JR is a light, comic introduction to the work of Gilbert and Sullivan, featuring opportunities for singing as an ensemble or in small groups, with vocal parts written in unison or simple two-part harmony. Audio Sampler - HL00160203 $10.00 ShowKit - HL9971456 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Student Books Director's Guide Piano/Vocal Score 2 Accompaniment CDs Media Disc Choreography DVD 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 9971459 - Director's Guide $100.00 9971458 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 9971457 - Student Book $10.00 9971461 - Student Book 10-pak $75.00 9971408 - Performance/Accomp CD pack $75.00 9971463 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 9971464 - Student Rehearsal CDs 20-Pak $100.00 9971460 - Choreography DVD $50.00 9971462 - Media Disc $10.00 00160203 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Pour, O Pour the Pirate Sherry [Pirates, Samuel] When Frederic Was a Little Lad [Ruth] Oh, Better Far to Live and Die [Pirate King, Pirates] Oh, False One, You Have Deceived Me [Frederic, Ruth] Climbing Over Rocky Mountain [Daughters, Edith, Kate] Stop, Ladies, Pray! [Frederic, Edith, Kate, Daughters] Oh, Is There Not One Maiden [Frederic, Daughters, Mabel] Poor Wandering One [Mabel, Daughters] Stay, We Must Not Lose Our Senses [Frederic, Daughters, Pirates] I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major-General [Major-General, Chorus] Oh, Men of Dark and Dismal Fate [Major-General, Samuel, Pirate King, Pirates, Mabel, Daughters] Oh, Dry the Glistening Tear [Daughters] When the Foeman Bares His Steel (Tarantara!) [Peter, Tiger Lily, Brave Girls, Lost Boys, Children] When You Had Left Our Pirate Fold (Part 1) [Ruth, Frederic, Pirate King] When You Had Left Our Pirate Fold (Part 2) [Ruth, Frederic, Pirate King] Tarantara! (Reprise) [Sergeant, Police] A Rollicking Band of Pirates We [Pirates] With Cat-like Tread, Upon Our Prey We Steal [Pirates, Police] Now What Is This, and What Is That [Daughters, Pirates, Major-General, Mabel, Frederic] Finale [Sergeant, Pirate King, Police, Daughters, Major-General, Ruth, Pirate King, Mabel, Frederic, Edith] Samuel Samuel is a pirate and serves as the second in command to the Pirate King. Where the Pirate King is self-assured, assertive, and strong, Samuel is more bookish. Think of him as the accountant to the Pirates. Samuel has some featured solos and it is a good role for a performer who is showing good promise, but needs to nurture their skills a bit. Vocal range: Bb3-Eb3 Pirate King The Pirate King is a great comic lead for a boy who is self assured, a bit of a ham, and great at physical comedy. Cast someone who is inventive, fearless and willing to take positive risks. The Pirate King should sing reasonably well, but he doesn't need to be a polished singer. Consider casting someone who is athletically inclined and a natural leader-this is a great role for the star soccer player, or captain of the football team. Vocal range: B3-Eb5 Frederic Frederic is the male ing�nue of the show. He should have a great voice that is polished. Frederic should also have looks that qualify as "dreamy" if at all possible. Think Davy Jones, Luke Perry or anyone who may be worthy of the cover of Teen Beat or Teen People. Frederic can be a better singer than an actor, but it's great if he can be both. Vocal range: B3-F5 Ruth Ruth is a humoristic tour-de-force for a young comedian. She should be able to play matronly but still be vibrant and full of energy. An actress who is physically different from Frederic is a great choice. For example, if your Frederic is tall and thin, consider a short and stocky Ruth. Ruth transforms from old matronly, to a knock-out beauty when she returns with the Pirate King in "When Fred'ric Was a Little Lad", so it's great to cast an actress who is versatile. Ruth has a featured solo, but doesn't have to be a polished singer. Cast a comedian who is naturally funny, and can be bigger than life. Someone who played Miss Hannigan in Annie Junior, or Mrs. Paroo in The Music Man Junior would make a great Ruth. Vocal range: G3-Eb5 Kate, Edith, and Isabel Kate, Edith and Isabel are the leaders of General Stanley's wards, with Edith serving as the leader among the three. Of the three, Kate and Edith have solos, although you could break-up their solos to provide Isabel with a solo as well. These three should be good singers, good dancers, and reasonable actresses. Traditionally, Edith wears glasses and is more bookish, Kate is aggressive and tomboyish, while Isabel is younger and more na�ve. However, these three roles are open to interpretation. Consider having your actresses create their own character types as long as the characters are specific and can be sustained throughout the entire production. These are great roles for actresses you are nurturing for future lead parts. Vocal range: G3-F5 Mabel Mabel is the female ing�nue to Frederic's male ing�nue. She must have a polished, operatic or legitimate voice. Mabel should be attractive and a reasonable actress, but doesn't need to be an accomplished actress. She's the female star of the show, and the character who takes the biggest risk. Vocal range: G3-G5 Major-General Stanley Major-General Stanely is one of the signature character types in any Gilbert and Sullivan show. For Pirates the Major-General is the character who delivers the rapid fire patter song. An excellent part for a young performer who may not have great pitch, but has great rhythm. Cast that kid who listens to hip-hop and rap; they'll be a natural as the Major-General. Personality is primary in this part; acting, singing, and dancing are a definite second thought. Vocal range: A3-Eb5 Sergeant The Sergeant of Police should be a good singer and a great dancer. Don't hesitate to cast a girl in this role; simply slap on a handlebar moustache and you'll be good to go! Think "Key Stone Cops" as your inspiration. Vocal range: C4-E5 Police Chorus For this chorus, you can cast your best dancers and singers and mix boys and girls, or just girls if that's your best option. The police are traditionally portrayed as "Key Stone Cops"; so performers who are physically adept will be a great addition to your show. Vocal range: E3-F#5 Daughter Chorus These are the wards of Major General Stanley and can range in type and talent as broadly as required. Consider casting Daughters who are accomplished dancers and letting them take the lead in the dances. Cast singing Daughters to lead the singing; throw in some kids who can neither sing nor dance but are great character actresses and encourage them to be funny. Mix it up and your Daughter chorus will be an outstanding addition to your Pirates company. Vocal range: F3-G5 Pirate Chorus If you didn't read the Daughter chorus description, do so now. Everything that applies to casting the Daughters, applies to the Pirates. Don't hesitate to mix boys and girls as Pirates. (In fact sometimes girls make the best pirates!) You can have your chorus of Police play Pirates in the early numbers to give everyone more to do. Vocal range: Bb3-F#5
Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka Kids - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Words and Music by Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley Adapted for the Stage by Leslie Bricusse and Timothy A. McDonald Based on the book: "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" By Roald Dahl Overview / Synopsis The delicious adventures experienced by Charlie Bucket on his visit to Willy Wonka's mysterious chocolate factory light up the stage in this captivating adaptation of Roald Dahl's fantastical tale. Featuring the enchanting songs from the 1971 film starring Gene Wilder, in addition to a host of fun new songs, Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS is a scrumdidilyumptious musical guaranteed to delight everyone's sweet tooth. Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS follows enigmatic candy manufacturer Willy Wonka as he stages a contest by hiding golden tickets in five of his scrumptious candy bars. Whomever comes up with these tickets will win a free tour of the Wonka factory, as well as a lifetime supply of candy. Four of the five winning children are insufferable brats, but the fifth is a likeable young lad named Charlie Bucket, who takes the tour in the company of his equally amiable grandfather. The children must learn to follow Mr. Wonka's rules in the factory - or suffer the consequences. Roald Dahl's Willy Wonka KIDS has a flexible cast size with many featured and ensemble roles, including the singing and dancing Oompa-Loompas. Audio Sampler - HL01149056 $10.00 ShowKit - HL01149057 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Student Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Rehearsal/Accompaniment CD Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 01149053 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 01149052 - Director's Guide $100.00 01149054 - Libretto/Vocal Score $10.00 01149055 - Libretto/Vocal Score 10-Pak $75.00 01146056 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample The Candy Man Golden Age of Chocolate At the Gates (Pure Imagination) Factory Reveal Sequence Oompa-Loompa 2 Oompa-Loompa 3 Burping Song Oompa-Loompa 4 (I've Got a) Golden Ticket Oompa-Loompa 1 I Want It Now! Bows Cast of Characters Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers) Cast Type: Children Dance Requirements: Standard Grandma Josephina Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Grandma Georgina Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Grandpa George Charlie's three grandparents are mainly non-singing character roles. Cast performers that are innately interesting, who have good comic timing and are solid actors. These actors can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Male The Candy Man Kids Sophie, Danny, Alfie, Billie and additional kids as needed are The Candy Man Kids. These kids sing "The Candy Man" and their numbers may be expanded as you see fit and your program will allow. The names of the characters have been drawn from other Roald Dahl books. Feel free to assign additional names to match the number of performers you cast. All students like to go home and exclaim "I'm playing Alfie" versus "I'm just Kid 2 in 'The Candy Man.'") You may also cast a single class (say the sixth grade chorus) to perform these roles, as they appear only in this number unless you choose to double them as Cooks and Oompa-Loompas. Gender: Any Oompa-Loompa Chorus The Oompa-Loompa Chorus can be as small as a handful of performers or as large as your stage and theater can accommodate. Consider casting your youngest performers as Oompa-Loompas and augment them with a handful of older students who can take the lead and serve as Oompa-Loompa wranglers. Gender: Any Willy Wonka / Candy Man Willy Wonka is an enigmatic character; at once mysterious and mischievous but also charismatic. There are a number of directions to take with Wonka, ranging from Gene Wilder's version in the original film, Willy Wonka and The Chocolate Factory, to Johnny Depp's portrayal in the recent film, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and everything in between. Pick a young man (or a young woman) who is charismatic, engaging and has a great voice (in the case of a young man, preferably a changed voice). The actor should be able to be funny and serious and change between the two on a dime. It is preferred that Wonka double as the Candy Man, as it helps reinforce that Wonka has staged the Golden Ticket competition and is somewhat controlling this contest along the way. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: G3 Phineous Trout Phineous is the reporter who announces the winners of the Golden Ticket contest throughout the show. The role requires some singing, and can be played by either a boy or a girl. If played by a girl, be sure to change the pronouns appropriately. Gender: Any Mrs. Gloop Mrs. Gloop is Augustus' mother who has overindulged her son with food. The role requires a character actress who isn't afraid to take positive risks both in her acting and her singing. Gender: Female Violet Beauregarde Gum chewer extraordinaire, Violet hails from Snellville, Georgia, so it's nice if she has a Southern American accent, but not necessary. Violet should stand in stark contrast to Veruca Salt. Veruca is a wealthy refined brat; Violet is more of a blue-collar, middle-class brat. Gender: Female Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: C4 Matilda Matilda is also a schoolmate of Charlie's, but she's a bit of bully. Matilda has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with James and Charlie. Gender: Female Vocal range top: B4 Vocal range bottom: C#4 Candy Man The Candy Man goes from neighborhood to neighborhood selling candy, much like an ice cream truck. He should be pleasant, charismatic, and friendly. It's possible for a girl to play this role, but she should play the role as male, otherwise, the title of the song may not make sense. Gender: Male Vocal range top: E5 Vocal range bottom: G3 Mr. Bucket These are great roles for young people who have nice voices, and are natural nurturers. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Male Mike Teavee For this adaptation Mike is not just a TV junky. He is also addicted to video games, the Internet and any other mindnumbing technological device. Mike is bratty, loud and obnoxious. He does not know the word "no." Mike could also be portrayed by a girl playing a boy, but generally works best with a male actor. Gender: Male Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: Db4 Squirrels The squirrels are non-speaking, non-singing roles and you can cast as many as necessary. This is a great part for beginning actors. Gender: Any Charlie Bucket The role of Charlie Bucket is the emotional heart and soul of the musical. The actor performing Charlie should have an unchanged voice and lots of pluck and enthusiasm. Think a male "Annie." Charlie is in nearly every scene, so make sure you select an actor who can handle the demands of a sizable role. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: A3 Mrs. Bucket These are great roles for young people who have nice voices, and are natural nurturers. Mr. and Mrs. Bucket can double as Oompa-Loompas in the second half of the show. Gender: Female Augustus Gloop Augustus is the overachieving eater who represents the evils of eating too much. Be extremely sensitive in casting this role as it is tempting to cast an overweight young person and that can be scarring-especially if the child struggles with this issue. Consider casting a thin child and creating the illusion of size via the costume. Either a boy or a girl acting like a boy can play Augustus. Gender: Male Vocal range top: Db5 Vocal range bottom: Eb4 Ms. Teavee Ms. Teavee is a take on all television moms of the distant past. Think June Cleaver (Leave it to Beaver) or Marion Cunningham (Happy Days) or Carol Brady (The Brady Bunch). She's perfectly put together and a bit vacant. Gender: Female Veruca Salt Veruca is the wealthy, class-conscious, spoiled brat. She is often portrayed with a high British accent that is by no means required (brats come in all nationalities). Veruca's solo number "I Want It Now" is deceptively tricky and comes late in the show, so select a young woman with a strong voice. Veruca should contrast sharply with Violet Beauregarde in terms of look and physical type. Gender: Female Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: A3 James James is Charlie's friend from school. He has a few lines and sings the introduction of "The Candy Man" along with Matilda and Charlie. Gender: Male Vocal range top: A4 Vocal range bottom: A3 Mrs. Beauregarde Mrs. Beauregard is a teacher of geography and has invested a great deal of hard-earned money on therapy for her orally fixated daughter, with less than stellar results. The role is virtually non-singing. Her accent should match Violet's. Gender: Female Grandpa Joe Grandpa Joe is the grandfather we all wish we had when we were Charlie's age. He is caring, patient, sweet and always reminds Charlie to remain cheerful. Cast an actor who can be kind and funny. Gender: Male Vocal range top: D5 Vocal range bottom: C4 Chorus Of Cooks Please note this is an optional chorus. The Cooks appear during "I Eat More!" presenting Augustus with a smorgasbord of food choices. (Check out the Director's Guide note in the song for more information.) Double the Candy Man Kids Chorus and Oompa-Loompa Chorus or cast a single class of kids to perform this section. (For example, Mrs. Ripley's third grade class.) Gender: Any Mr. Salt Mr. Salt's solution to most problems is to buy his way out. He is upper class, and usually portrayed with a high British accent. (But this accent is not necessary-just make sure Veruca and Mr. Salt sound like they hail from the same place.) He sings very little. A female actress playing male may also play the role. Gender: Male
The Music Man Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Meredith Willson Music & Lyrics by Meredith Willson Based on a story by Meredith Willson and Fraklin Lacey Overview / Synopsis Based on Meredith Wilson's six-time, Tony Award-winning musical comedy, The Music Man JR. features some of musical theatre's most iconic songs and a story filled with wit, warmth, and good old-fashioned romance. The Music Man JR. is family entertainment at its best - a bold, brassy show that will have the whole town atwitter! Master showman Harold Hill is in town, and he's got "seventy-six trombones" in tow. Can upright, uptight Marian, the town librarian, resist his powerful allure? The story follows fast-talking traveling salesman Harold Hill as he cons the people of River City, Iowa into buying instruments and uniforms for a boys' band he vows to organize. The catch? He doesn't know a trombone from a treble clef. His plans to skip town with the cash are foiled when he falls for Marian, whose belief in Harold's power just might help him succeed in the end in spite of himself. The Music Man JR. is the perfect vehicle for your young cast, a toe-tapping crowd-pleaser featuring a soaring soprano ing�nue part and a leading role for a charismatic actor, as well as plenty of roles for kids of every level. Audio Sampler - HL00151879 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971792 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: Production Guide Director's Guide P/V Vocal Score 30 Actor Scripts 2 Rehearsal CDs 2 Accompaniment CDs Media Disc Choreographic DVD Cross-curricular Guide 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971793 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971794 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971795 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971796 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 09971797 - Perf/Accomp CD pack $75.00 09971798 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971799 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 09971800 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971801 - Media Disc $10.00 00151879 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample SCENE 1 Rock Island [Salesmen, Newspaper Readers, Charlie] SCENE 2 Iowa Stubborn [Townspeople, Farmer, Farmer's Wife] Ya Got Trouble [Harold, Townspeople] SCENE 4 Piano Lesson / If You Don't Mind My Saying So [Marian, Mrs. Paroo] Goodnight, My Someone [Marian] SCENE 5 Columbia, Gem of the Ocean [Townspeople] Seventy-Six Trombones [Harold, Townspeople] Ice Cream/Sincere [Harold, Olin, Oliver, Jacey, Ewart] SCENE 6 Pick-a-Little, Talk-a-Little (Part 1) [Alma, Ethel, Maud, Eulalie, Ladies, Harold] Pick-a-Little, Talk-a-Little (Part 2) [Alma, Eulalie, Maud,d Ethel, Mrs. Squires, Ladies, Harold] SCENE 8 The Wells Fargo Wagon [Townspeople, Winthrop] Shipoopi [Marcellus, Boys, Girls] Pick-a-Little, Talk-a-Little (Reprise) [Ladies, Ethel, Alma, Maud, Ethel, Mrs. Squires, Eulalie] SCENE 9 Gary, Indiana [Winthrop, Mrs. Paroo, Marian] SCENE 10 Till There Was You [Marian, Harold] Bows [Cast] Harold Hill Harold Hill is a great role for a young person to play. Select a boy with charisma and charm, who is comfortable on stage. He should be a great actor, an average singer, and an average mover. You'll also want to cast a boy with a changed voice. For your sanity, make sure you cast someone who memorizes lines easily and has a good sense of musical rhythm. Your Harold should look good with your Marian and the two together should exude a spark of excitement. Gender: Male Vocal Range: G5 - B3 Marian Paroo The role of Marian is a different twist on the traditional leading lady. The character progresses greatly during the show, starting as an uptight librarian and transforming into a beautiful and trusting young woman. Your Marian must have an amazing voice, be an excellent actor, and be able to move well. She must also have an air of confidence that draws Harold and your audience to her. She will also need to be comfortable kissing two boys-Harold and Charlie Cowell, which requires a certain amount of emotional maturity. Finally, take some time during auditions to try different pairs of Harolds and Marians until you reach the perfect match. Vocal Range: G5 - G3 Charlie Cowell Charlie Cowell is one of the premium acting-only roles. Consider having the actor playing Charlie perform in the ensemble or as a teen dancer or townsperson-just make sure it's clear he's NOT playing Charlie Cowell in those scenes. Cast a strong actor with a good loud voice who is a bit of a ham and likes being on the stage. He has to be comfortable kissing Marian, and should have a good sense of comic timing. Charlie is a good choice for an understudy to Harold Hill. Gender: Male Mayor Shinn You may be tempted to cast an "over-the-top" actor as Mayor Shinn, but resist and heed the warning of Meredith Willson. The actor playing Mayor Shinn certainly needs a good sense of comic timing, but should be able to perform the role very seriously. This is elemental in creating the humor of The Music Man JR., which is based in reality. Mayor Shinn does not have to sing or dance, but he is responsible for a great deal of the pacing and line pick up in the show. Make sure your actor can memorize long monologues. Gender: Male Eulalie Mackecknie Shinn Everybody wants to play Eulalie. It's a great role for a great comic actress. Again heed Mr. Willson's warning and avoid casting an actress who is over the top. If Eulalie takes herself seriously your audience will find her hysterical. Eulalie does have some singing and some dancing, or at least posing. Make sure your Eulalie works with your Mayor Shinn. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D5 - D4 Marcellus Washburn This classic sidekick to Harold has been immortalized by comedic greats like Buddy Hacket. Marcellus' big number is "Shipoopi" so the character has to act well, sing reasonably well (although a character voice is best) and be able to dance. Cast the kid who is just funny all the time and you'll have a great Marcellus. Gender: Male Vocal Range: D#5 - E4 Ethel Toffelmier Ethel is Marcellus's girlfriend. She's described by Marcellus as "a nice comfortable girl and the bosses' niece." Ethel has some acting, some singing, and some dancing. Ethel is also one of the solo Pick-a-Little ladies. Make sure she and Marcellus look good together, think Ethel and Fred from I Love Lucy! Gender: Female Vocal Range: D5 - D4 Mrs. Paroo Mrs. Paroo is the conscience of River City. She is a great mother, stands up for what she believes in, and gently pushes Marian to think of her future. The role requires an actress who can do a good Irish Brogue, and who can sing and act. She should also look right with Marian and Winthrop. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Eb5 - Ab3 Winthrop Paroo Winthrop should appear to be young, his voice must be unchanged and he should be a good actor. Winthrop also needs to be able to affect a believable lisp. Winthrop has to transform from a shy child to an outspoken child who not only sings but dances! Gender: Male Vocal Range: Eb5 - C4 Amaryllis Amaryllis is the slightly bratty girl who studies piano with Marian. Amaryllis should be a good actor, and roughly the same size as Winthrop and Gracie. Just who are Amaryllis' parents is one of the great mysteries of The Music Man JR. and something for you to decide. Gender: Female Ewart Dunlop Ewart is one of the four quartet members with the second highest voice or tenor. He is married to Maud Dunlop. Cast singers who can hold their own vocal parts strongly and worry about the acting later. Gender: Male Vocal Range: F#5 - E4 Oliver Hix Oliver is one of the four quartet members with the second lowest voice or baritone. He is married to Alma Hix. Cast singers who can hold their own vocal parts strongly and worry about the acting later. Gender: Male Vocal Range: F#5 - E4 Jacey Squires Jacey is one of the four quartet members with the highest voice or tenor. He is married to Mrs. Squires. Cast singers who can hold their own vocal parts strongly and worry about the acting later. Gender: Male Vocal Range: A5 - B3 Olin Britt Olin is one of the four quartet members with the lowest voice or bass. Cast singers who can hold their own vocal parts strongly and worry about the acting later. Gender: Male Vocal Range: D5 - A3 Tommy Djilas Tommy is the teen heartthrob in the show. Cast the best looking kid you have; with any luck he'll also be able to act and dance. Tommy's love interest is Zaneeta so make sure the two characters have chemistry between them. Gender: Male Zaneeta Shinn Zaneeta should be your best female dancer. The role is often given dance features in both "76 trombones" and "Shipoopi". Zaneeta also should look like she belongs in the Shinn Family, although this is not necessary. Zaneeta gets to deliver the classic "Ye gads" line! Gender: Female Gracie Shinn Gracie is Zaneeta's little sister. This role has one or two lines of dialogue and traditionally is the first soloist in "Wells Fargo Wagon." Gracie can also understudy Amaryllis in case of an emergency. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Eb5 - B3 Alma Hix One of the core members of the Pick-a-little ladies, requiring girls with strong voices and a good sense of comedy. Alma is married to Oliver. You can also add additional Pick-a-little ladies. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D5 - D4 Maud Dunlop One of the core members of the Pick-a-little ladies, requiring girls with strong voices and a good sense of comedy. Maud is married to Ewart. You can also add additional Pick-a-little ladies. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D5 - D4 Mrs. Squires One of the core members of the Pick-a-little ladies, requiring girls with strong voices and a good sense of comedy. Mrs. Squires is married to Jacey. You can also add additional Pick-a-little ladies. Gender: Female Vocal Range: D5 - D4 Conductor The conductor has the first line in the show, so cast an actor that is loud and energetic! Gender: Male Constable Locke The Constable is a quietly wise man who sees through Harold, but doesn't seem to mind. It's a nice feature for any young character actor. Gender: Male Ensemble The Ensemble is comprised of Adult-types, teens and kids to play townspeople, traveling salesmen, teen dancers, Wa Tan Ye girls and the boys' band. Can accommodate additional Pick-a-little ladies Gender: both Adults For some reason, some kids just read on stage as adults. You'll recognize this quality by comparing kids. Since THE MUSIC MAN JR. is about a town, you'll want to assign your cast into family units. Try to create a realistic town with married folks, single folks, etc. If you have an abundance of girls, cast a few as widows. Ask each family to create a family history, including details of their lives. By doing this you will create an ensemble that is engaged and energized and this will greatly add to the quality of your production! The adults have a few lines (which you can distribute while blocking the scenes.) They also have some solo vocal lines. You'll also want to select the Farmer and His Wife from this group. Gender: both Traveling Salesmen You'll want to cast several good actors to play traveling salesmen, especially salesmen number five, number three, and number one. If you find it necessary to cast girls as traveling salesmen make sure they play the roles as men. Gender: both Teen Dancers Create a group of teen dancers by selecting your best dancers. The Teen Dancers will be responsible for "Shipoopi," and have features in "76 Trombones." Make sure each Teen Dancer is assigned to a family to create the illusion of a real town. Gender: both Wa Tan Ye Girls All of your little girls can play Wa Tan Ye Girls. They are featured during Eulalie's "Spectacle" just prior to "76 Trombones." Again assign them to families. Gender: Female Boys' Band All of your little boys can be in the Boys' Band provided you have enough uniforms. The Boys' Band has two main features: "76 Trombones" and the finale of the show. Make sure the boys are a part of a family. Gender: both
What's In A Show Box - Young @ Part | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot We Will Rock You Wind In The Willows 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing SHOWBOX COMPONENTS A Showbox for each title is available. Young@Part Showboxes cost $675.00 and Younger@Part Showboxes cost $525.00. Individual components are also available for purchase. Each Showbox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD PRODUCTION RESOURCES Add these essential tools to your license for a seamless and spectacular production Choreographic Guide by TOP TOP Choreographic Videos provide step-by-step instruction from Broadway choreographers, giving you and your cast the training to execute each number in the show. Whether you use the choreography as is or adapt it for the unique needs of your cast, this thorough teaching tool is a framework for bringing memorable dance numbers to your show. TOP not only breaks down the dance sequences, but also examines the history and development of each style of movement in the show. Teachers consistently share with us how TOP has helped challenge and motivate their students, provide development for their choreographers, and bring a "wow factor" that thrills their audiences. Digital Backdrops by BMO Young@Part® Digital Backdrops from BMD are created by professional designers to suit the needs of school and youth productions. They include an instructional help guide along with the digital projections for iPad, PC or Mac platforms. As the first company to make projections commercially available to the performance art community, BMD continues to be the most innovative and customer-oriented company of its kind, proudly partnering with TRW to include this exciting new resource for all Young@Part® productions. Additional Add-Ons T-Shirts: TRW now offers top-quality t-shirts from our partners to commemorate your successful production. Whether your company was down, down underground in Memphis, dancing in the graveyard in the The Addams Family or doing the "Alabama stomp" in Big Fish, this is a great way to keep the memories alive. You can even add the dates and the name of your school or organization. Contact licensing@theatricalrights.com to place your order today! Transposition Express: Sometimes you've got just the right song in just the right show... but the key is not suited to your singer. TRW offers Transposition Express, our lightning-fast key change service. Simply choose your desired key and we do the rest! Please visit https://www.theatricalrights.com/resource/transposition-express/ to fill out your form. Customizable Show Posters: An easy-to-use online tool lets you create and download a professionally designed, license-compliant poster and suite of marketing materials for your show in just minutes. Contact licensing@theatricalrights.com to order!
Curtains - Young @ Part | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot We Will Rock You Wind In The Willows 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book and Additional Lyrics: Rupert Holmes Music and Additional Lyrics: John Kander Lyrics: Fred Ebb Original Book and Concept: Peter Stone Overview / Synopsis It's the brassy, bright, and promising year of 1959. Boston's Colonial Theatre is host to the opening night performance of a new musical. When the leading lady mysteriously dies on stage the entire cast & crew are suspects. Enter a local detective, who just happens to be a musical theatre fan! Packed with glorious tunes and a witty, charming script filled with delightful characters, CURTAINS Young@Part® is a hilarious journey for both performers and the audience. Print Perusal - HL00237281 $19.95 ShowBox - HL00237276 $675.00 This ShowBox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD Young @ Part Request Individual Components 00251192 - Director's Script $50.00 00251193 - Cast Script/Vocal Book $10.00 00251201 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00251202 - Guide Vocals CD $50.00 00251203 - Performance Tracks CD $100.00 Hear A Sample Wide Open Spaces What Kind of Man? Show People In the Same Boat Thataway! He Did It Kansasland A Tough Act to Follow Transition to Stage A Tough Act (Finale) Lieutenant Frank Cioffi Sweetly endearing local Boston detective who idolizes the world of musical theatre and has reveled in the thrill of performing in community theatre. Called upon to solve the murder of the star of "Robbin' Hood" (a musical intended for Broadway that is currently out of town in Boston), Cioffi is very good at his job and, lamentably, married to his work. He is instantly smitten with ingénue Niki Harris. The undisputed central character of the musical. Requires deft and charming comedy, good singing, solid dancing in one extended "Fred and Ginger" number. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Ab3-G5 Niki Harris Pretty, almost too innocent ingénue, a local performer in a small role hoping "Robbin' Hood" will be the Boston production that at last takes her to Broadway. Love interest for Lieutenant Cioffi, apparently reciprocated. Requires a legit soprano and strong dancing in an extended "Fred and Ginger" number. Gender: Female Vocal Range: C4-E5 Georgia Hendricks Female half of our show-within-a-show's songwriting team on the lyric-writing side. Ends up taking on the leading lady role. Must sing and dance extremely well. Gender: Female Vocal Range: G3-E5 Carmen Bernstein Brash and brassy Broadway producer. Terrific comedic actress with a belt. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Bb3-E5 Aaron Fox The composer of the show-within-the-show. His songwriting partner, Georgia, is also his wife, from whom he's separated but for whom he still pines. He's a handsome, intense, somewhat tortured artist-type. Requires a strong vocalist with comedy. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-E5 Christopher Belling English director. Very camp. Very droll. Noel Coward meets Addison DeWitt meets Clifton Webb. Requires a superb comic actor. Gender: May be cast male or female Vocal Range: B3-E5 Bambi "Bernét" Performer in the chorus, daughter of Carmen, step-daughter of Sidney. Genuinely brassy and artificially blonde. Hungry to work her way out of the chorus; many think she was only hired because of her mother. She surprises everyone, however, when she shows genuine dancing and singing talent when at last called upon. Requires great dancing, strong "street-smart dumb blonde" comedy, and singing. Gender: Female Vocal Range: C4-E5 Oscar Shapiro From the garment district and sole investor in "Robbin' Hood." A likeably gruff man who knows nothing about theatre and frets over every dime of his that's spent. Requires good "rough around the edges" comedy and singing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-E5 Bobby Pepper The Gene Kelly of "Robbin' Hood," its choreographer and male star, and a handsome rival to Aaron for Georgia's affection. Requires strong dancing, singing, comedy. Gender: Male Vocal Range: A3-E5 Johnny Harmon Stage Manager of the show-within-the-show, and both drill sergeant and mother hen to the cast. Barks orders but has a pleasant side as well, he keeps the company in line and on their toes throughout the rehearsal process. Comic actor who can sing. Gender: May be cast male or female (using the name Jenny Harmon) Vocal Range: E4-Eb5 Jessica Crenshaw Faded Hollywood star, a grand diva with no right to be one, and a plague to the show-with-the-show and to her cast. An absolutely dreadful singer and inept actress who stars in the show-within-a-show and gets murdered on its opening night in Boston. Must be skillful enough to sing hilariously out-of-tune and ineptly, and adroit enough to dance perfectly out of step with the rest of the cast. Appears only in the first minutes of the musical; on Broadway, this performer then adopted a different look and became part of the ensemble. Gender: Female Vocal Range: G4-D5 Randy Dexter A member of the singing & dancing ensemble featured in "Kansasland," pleasant but with a sensitive side. Gender: Male Vocal Range: A3-E5 Harv Fremont A member of the singing & dancing ensemble who bears a bouquet. Gender: Male Vocal Range: A3-E5 Ensemble
Spamalot - Young @ Part | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot We Will Rock You Wind In The Willows 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Original Book, Music and Lyrics: Eric Idle Music and Lyrics: John Du Prez Overview / Synopsis Lovingly ripped off from the classic film comedy Monty Python and the Holy Grail, this middle school adaptation of Monty Python's SPAMALOT retells the legend of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. The 2005 Broadway production won three Tony® Awards, including Best Musical, and was followed by two successful West End runs. The outrageous, uproarious, and gloriously entertaining story of King Arthur and the Lady of the Lake will delight casts and audiences as they search for the Holy Grail and "always look on the bright side of life." Print Perusal - HL00237279 $19.95 ShowBox - HL00237275 $675.00 This ShowBox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD Young @ Part Request Individual Components 00251185 - Director's Script $50.00 00251186 - Cast Script/Vocal Book $10.00 00251187 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00251188 - Guide Vocals CD $50.00 00251189 - Performance Tracks CD $100.00 Hear A Sample Introduction Fisch Schlapping Song King Arthur I Am Not Dead Yet Lady of the Lake Laker Girls The Song That Goes All For One Knights Round Table Find Your Grail Run Away Bright Side of Life Brave Sir Robin Whatever Happened All Alone The Hand of God Finale King Arthur The King of England who sets out on a quest to form the Knights of the Roundtable and find the Holy Grail. Great humor. Good singer. Gender: Male Vocal Range: G3-D5 Patsy King Arthur's horse and servant. Underappreciated but always longing for King Arthur's approval. Good, funny, physical mover with some tap dancing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: B3-D5 Sir Lancelot A Knight of the Roundtable. He is fearless to a bloody fault but through a twist of fate, does discover his 'softer side.' Gender: Male Vocal Range: Ab3-Eb5 Sir Robin A Knight of the Roundtable. Ironically called 'Sir Robin the Brave,' though he couldn't be more cowardly. Joins the Knights for the singing and dancing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-C5 Lady of the Lake A Diva. Strong, beautiful, possesses mystical powers. The leading lady of the show. Great singing voice is essential, as she must be able to sing effortlessly in many styles and vocal registers. Gender: Female Vocal Range: E3-G5 Sir Galahad A Knight of the Roundtable. Begins as Dennis, a lower class 'mud gatherer' who becomes Knighted and transforms into the dashing Sir Galahad. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-D5 Sir Bedevere A Knight of the Roundtable. An inept scholar. No solo singing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: D4-D5 Minstrels Gender: Both Vocal Range: B3-D5 Historians Gender: Both Vocal Range: A3-A4 Ensemble
Bugsy Malone Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elephant & Piggie's "We Are In A Play" Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Alan Parker Music and Lyrics by Paul Williams Overview / Synopsis Based on the hit 1976 film starring a preteen Scott Baio and Jodi Foster and featuring a catchy, swinging score by the composer of The Muppet Movie, Bugsy Malone JR. is good, clean, comedic fun! Two gangs comprised completely of children, square off in a 1920's rivalry of Capone-ian standards. Dandy Dan's gang has gotten the upper hand since obtaining the "splurge" gun (a weapon that shoots whip cream). Now Fat Sam and his bumbling buffoons are in real trouble! Bugsy Malone, a one-time boxer, is thrust not-so-willingly into the gangster limelight, when he becomes the last chance Fat Sam's gang has of surviving. All Bugsy really wants to do is spend time with his new love Blousey; but that just isn't in the cards for our hero. Bugsy Malone JR. includes a chorus, which may be expanded by adding as many members to Dandy Dan's and Fat Sam's gangs as your stage can accommodate. The Grand Slam Girls can also be expanded to incorporate more singing and dancing girls! Audio Sampler - HL00114404 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00114394 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Rehearsal CDs 2 Accompaniment CDs 1 Choreography DVD 1 Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00114394 - ShowKit $645.00 00114395 - Director's Guide $100.00 00114396 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00114397 - Actor's Script $10.00 00114398 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00114399 - Rehearsal / Accompaniment CD $75.00 00114400 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00114401 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00114402 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00114403 - Media Disc $10.00 00114404 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample SCENE 1 Bugsy Malone [Chorus Girls] Fat Sam's Grand Slam [Chorus, Maitre D's, Candy Cigarette Girls, Male Gamblers, Tallulah's Girls] SCENE 3 That's Why They Call Him Dandy [Dandy Dan, Hoods] Tomorrow [Fizzy] SCENE 4 Show Business [Lena, Chorus] SCENE 5 Bad Guys [Fat Sam's Gang] Ordinary Fool [Blousey] My Name is Tallulah [Tallulah, Tallulah's Girls] SCENE 6 Down and Out [Down and Outs] SCENE 7 Fat Sam's Grand Slam (Reprise) [Chorus Girls] You Give a Little Love [Bugsy, Fat Sam, Dandy Dan, Tallulah, Blousey] Bugsy Malone Bugsy Malone is the hero of the story. Cast a handsome young man who can sing and act. This role is equal parts Jimmy Stewart, James Bond and Gene Kelly. Bugsy alternates as the narrator and the star of the show. A young performer comfortable in front of an audience, who radiates a sense of charm and sincerity as well as a street-wise sensibility, will take your show a long way towards success. Blousey Brown Blousey Brown is at first a typical young, wide-eyed, would-be star, just off the bus from a small town. However, we find out that Blousey is a force to be reckoned with and is certainly nobody's fool. This is a large role that requires good singing and acting, but the key to casting Blousey is finding a young actor who is at home with comedy. A young Carol Burnett type is recommended. Tallulah Tallulah is the classic gangster's moll. Cast a young woman who is self-confident and can deliver the role with deadpan sincerity and droll appeal. Tallulah is a Mae West type with a talent for performing. She needs to be a strong singer for her self-titled number. Fizzy Fizzy is an employee of Fat Sam's at the Grand Slam, whose duties mostly involve cleaning up the place. To cast Fizzy, find an actor who can really delivery the song "Tomorrow." It is a difficult song that requires emotional singing and a significant range. Hopefully, you'll find a singer who can delivery Fizzy's sad-eyed hopes and dreams as he sweeps up. Fat Sam Stacetto Fat Sam Stacetto is the baddest of the bad guys, whose biggest rival is Dandy Dan. Fat Sam should be an adept physical comedian with a commanding stage presence. He sings, so make sure you've got an actor who can carry a tune, but moreover, finding an experienced actor with good projection and diction skills is important. Fat Sam carries much of the dialogue of the show. Note that Fat Sam does not need to be fat. You can dress him in a fat suit or cast a realty small kid with a booming voice for comedic effect. Dandy Dan Dandy Dan is the unflappably stylish, debonair, underworld businessman who outwits Fat Sam every step of the way. Your Dan should be comfortable singing his song, "That's Why They Call Him Dandy." Find an actor with just the right sense of style and grace. Lena Marelli Lena Marelli is the star of the "Lena Marelli Show!," and she lets everyone know it. Cast a young performer who can TAKE OVER THE STAGE with a strong singing voice. An affected character voice is practically a requirement to delivery this role. Lena is not very bright, but she is very loud. Think Lina Lamont from Singin' in the Rain. Fat Sam's Gang Fat Sam's Gang includes Roxy Robinson, Angelo, Snake Eyes, Ritzy, Shake Down Louis and Sam's right hand man, Knuckles. You may add as many ensemble members to the gangs as your stage can accommodate. These fellows are bumbling, funny, non-threatening hoodlums. They should be able to sing with gusto (if not in tune) and be willing to work on the rigors of physical comedy. Many productions have successfully cast girls in these roles. Dandy Dan's Gang Dandy Dan's Gang members are really bad guys. Also known as The Hoods, they sing a little, but they splurge a lot! Cast suave-looking types who can pull off slicked-back hair and double-breasted suits. Many productions have successfully cast girls in these roles. The Hoods include Bronx Charlie, Shoulders, Benny Lee, Yonkers, Laughing Boy and Doodle. Tallulah's Girls The Tallulah's Girls perform at the speakeasy, and they include Tillie, Loretta, Dotty and Bangles. These girls should be very at home singing and dancing and should work well as ensemble singers. They are basically Tallulah's gang! Bangles has the most dialogue of these girls, so you might want to put your best actor in that role. Oscar De Velt Oscar De Velt is the stage equivalent of Cecil B. DeMille. A strong, confident actor will fit the bill here. Kiki the Colorist, Cashier and Stylist Kiki the Colorist, Cashier and Stylist Part of Paulette's entourage at the salon who are very adept at the "Bend and Snap." Range: C4-A4 Marbini the Magician Marbini the Magician and The Ventriloquist are two wonderfully funny smaller roles in the audition scene with Oscar De Velt. Both of them are convinced that they are world famous. Cast performers who can really sell these roles for all they are worth. The Opera Singer and the other bits in this scene are all great cameos. Down and Outs The Down and Outs are representative of out-of-work, Depression era men and women of the soup kitchens, which include the Cooks serving in the kitchens. The Down and Outs are ready for a cause, and helping Bugsy bring peace between Fat Sam and Dandy Dan is just what the doctor ordered. Additional ensemble roles in this scene include the Priest, Clipboard Willy and two Delivery Guys. If you have a smaller cast, you can use the splurged from early scenes (Fat Sam's Gang!). Other Roles Other standout ensemble roles include: the Radio Announcer, Paperboy (or girl), Razmataz, Maiter D's, Elegantly Dressed Lady, Waitress, Louella, The Butler, The Trumpet Player on Roller Skates, the Line of Auditionees at the Bijoux, Pop Becker, the Barber and Flash Frankie. These are all good comic roles for young performers. In a smaller ensemble you can double many of these parts. Additionally, students can be case as Speakeasy staff and customers, including a Waiter, Candy Cigarette Girls, Lena's Bodygaurds, Male Gamblers, additional Chrous Girls, Splurge Attendants, Speakeasy Customers, and Members of Fat Sam and Dandy Dan's Gangs.
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Brass & Woodwinds Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR BRASS & WOODWINDS EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Percussion Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR PERCUSSION EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired group and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
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