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Godspell Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Conceived and Originally Directed by John-Michael Tebelak Music and New Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Originally Produced on the New York Stage by Edgar Lansbury, Stuart Duncan and Joseph Beruh Overview / Synopsis Godspell JR.* is the young performer's edition of John-Michael Tebelak and Stephen Schwartz's groundbreaking and unique reflection on the life of Jesus, with a message of kindness, tolerance and love. Godspell is an engaging, innovative show that draws from various theatrical traditions, including clowning, pantomime, charades, acrobatics and vaudeville. Originally conceived for a cast of ten, the Broadway Junior version of Godspell is designed to allow you to expand your cast to include as many student performers as your stage can accommodate. Each of the parables and songs used in Godspell can be cast with a different group of students and can be rehearsed separately, allowing groups to rehearse simultaneously. If you choose to add the optional Godspell JR. Choir, you can use nearly everyone from your school or group who wishes to participate. Godspell can be performed virtually anywhere with the simplest of sets, costumes, lights and music. This show will be a favorite of performers and audiences alike! The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this John-Michael Tebelak story and Stephen Schwartz score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Audio Sampler - HL00103055 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971784 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request * Godspell JR. is not available in Canada Individual Components 09971786 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971785 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971787 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971788 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971789 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971790 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971676 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00103054 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971791 - Media Disc $10.00 00103055 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Act 1 Prepare Ye the Way of the Lord [John the Baptist, Company] Save the People [Jesus, Company] Day by Day [Solo, Company] Learn Your Lessons Well [Solo1, Solo 2] O, Bless the Lord, My Soul [Solo, Company] All for the Best [Jesus, Judas, Company] All Good Gifts [Solo, Company] We Beseech Thee [Solo, Company] Light of the World [Solo 1, Solo 2, Company] Act 2 Beautiful City [Female Solo] On the Willows [Orchestra] Finale [Jesus, Company] Bows [Company] Exit [Orchestra] Jesus Jesus is first and foremost a teacher. He should come off very naturalistic, not high and mighty or judgmental. He should be charismatic with being affected; serious, but with a good sense of humor; somebody who everybody likes and wants to have as a friend. While he doesn't have to sing a lot, his first song, "Save the People," should sound beautiful, clear and unaffected. John the Baptist/Judas John the Baptist/Judas is a role played by one person. It is important to note that in the original production of Godspell, the actors all used their own names and the original script did not include characters designated as "Judas" or "John the Baptist." As you cast this role, remember it is not really two different roles, just one actor embodying the actions of these two biblical figures. The character is charismatic, but also headstrong and sometimes acts in rash ways. Be daring in your casting - this role does not necessarily have to be played by a male performer. SOLO SINGERS "Day by Day" The singer who leads "Day by Day" doesn't need to have a wide range, but the song should sit in a place where they can sing it out strongly and with conviction. "Learn Your Lessons Well" The two soloists for "Learn Your Lessons Well" should be your singers who can enunciate expertly - the song is less about the melody and more about getting the words out quickly and so the audience can understand them. "O Bless the Lord, My Soul" This is a big song with several changes in tempo and tone. It requires your singer with the biggest, most dexterous voice. Even though the tempo becomes very bright during the song, don't worry if you don't cast your best dancer: letting the soloist stand and sing while the ensemble moves around them works just fine. "All Good Gifts" The slow, beautiful ballad of Godspell. Of all the songs in the show, this one demands your most beautiful voice. "We Beseech Thee" Here's one for the class clown! It can be almost spoken and still work well, as long as your performer has personality plus! "Light of the World" Another song that can almost be spoken - but remember, it's a song about making sure your light shines throughout the world - the singer has to really "sell" the song! "Beautiful City" Beautiful and sincere, the singer must be able to let the audience know that they understand the message Jesus has been teaching. FEATURED ACTORS/ACTRESSES Narrators Most of the parables have a narrator or two. Your narrators should be among your best speakers. You should be confident that they can handle longer sections of dialogue. Players Some of the players have lines and some do not. All players should be encouraged to develop larger than life characters.
Flight Partners with Hal Leonard for U.S. and Canadian Distribution PHOTO CAPTION: Doug Lady, Senior Vice President, and Brad Smith, Vice President of MI Products, with newly distributed Flight ukuleles. MILWAUKEE--5/22/19--Flight Instruments, a popular ukulele manufacturer, has granted Hal Leonard exclusive distribution of their ukulele products in the United States and Canada. The announcement came from Primoz Virant, COO of Flight, and Doug Lady, Senior Vice President at Hal Leonard. Based in Slovenia, Flight is an innovative manufacturer with a wide selection of beautiful ukuleles crafted in a variety of styles and materials. Since 2010, Flight has always stayed true to its original mission: create the best priced, quality musical instruments and make them available for everyone who wishes to play. As the ukulele explosion has grown, Flight has expanded beyond Slovenia and Europe, and is now available around the world. Through collaboration and partnerships with popular YouTubers, Instagrammers and bloggers focusing on bringing ukulele tutorials to the masses, Flight maintains a strong presence in the social media age. Known as the world's largest publisher of music education materials, songbooks, and sheet music, Hal Leonard is now also a leading distributor of musical instruments, gear and accessories with a diverse lineup of products. Hal Leonard is adding Flight ukuleles to a premier roster of ukulele accessories, books, and instruments, including Kahua Ukuleles, Woodrow Guitars, and more. Hal Leonard already distributes Flight ukuleles throughout Europe and Australia. Virant says, "Hal Leonard has always placed great value on service and education and is exactly the type of partner we at Flight love to have. We're very excited to continue to work with Hal Leonard in the US to continue to cultivate ukulele players everywhere." Lady added, "We're thrilled to offer US dealers the assortment of Flight products. We look forward to helping the Flight brand expand across the US and Canada, and reach new markets with our retailers." Retailers interested in stocking Flight ukuleles can call the Hal Leonard E-Z Order Line at 1-800-554-0626.
Hal Leonard Becomes the Exclusive Print Distributor for Award-Winning Composer Jim Stephenson Effective September 1, 2019, Hal Leonard has become the exclusive worldwide distributor for Stephenson Music, the publishing company of composer Jim Stephenson, whose recent "Liquid Melancholy" album was a 2019 GRAMMY Awards® nominee. His catalog includes over 300 works for orchestra, band, chorus, chamber music, brass band, solo instrumental, and more. Previously self-distributed, the new agreement with Hal Leonard will provide expansive distribution worldwide of titles published by Stephenson Music. After having performed 17 seasons as a trumpeter in the Naples (FL) Philharmonic, Stephenson started composing his own works. Leading American orchestras and wind ensembles, such as the Chicago Symphony, Minnesota Orchestra, St. Louis Symphony, and "The President's Own" United States Marine Band, and leading soloists around the world, have commissioned/ performed his music, both to critical acclaim and to the delight of audiences. The Boston Herald raved about "straightforward, unabashedly beautiful sounds," while Musical America viewed "Stephenson's orchestration to be astonishingly inventive." A formal sense of melody and tonality characterize his music, each embedded in a contemporary landscape. These qualities, coupled with the composer's keen ability to write timeless music suited to each occasion, have led to a steady stream of commissions and ongoing projects. Additionally, Stephenson is a highly sought-after arranger, conductor, and guest lecturer, traveling extensively to share his musical passions. "Jim has created an exciting new dynamic in the world of composing, and he's such a great advocate for the arts. We are very excited to add him to our catalog," said Paul Lavender, Vice President of Instrumental Publications for Hal Leonard. "We have admired his works for years and are thrilled to now bring them to a wider market." "Twenty years ago, I started composing just as a hobby," Stephenson remarked. "To now have this recognition and support by Hal Leonard, the undisputed leader in the world of music sales and distribution, is beyond my wildest expectations. I am thrilled to begin this journey with them as friends, and as business partners."
Shrek Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Jeanine Tesori Book and Lyrics by David Lindsay-Abaire DreamWorks Animation Motion Picture and the book by William Steig Overview / Synopsis One Act, Book Musical, Rated G Everyone's favorite ogre is back in the hilarious stage spectacle based on the Oscar-winning smash hit film. (60-MINUTE VERSION FOR YOUNG PERFORMERS) It's a "big bright beautiful world" for everyone's favorite ogre in Shrek The Musical JR., based on the Oscar-winning DreamWorks Animation film. Adapted for young performers and featuring a host of over-the-top roles for an expandable cast, there's a part for everyone in this dazzling adventure story. In a faraway kingdom, the green ogre Shrek finds his swamp invaded by banished fairytale misfits, runaways who've been cast off by Lord Farquaad, a tiny terror with big ambitions. When Shrek sets off with a wise-cracking donkey to confront Farquaad, he's handed a task - if he rescues feisty Princess Fiona from the Dragon-guarded tower, his swamp will be returned to him. But, a fairy tale wouldn't be complete without unexpected twists and turns along the way. Part romance and part twisted fairy tale, Shrek JR. is an irreverently fun show for the whole family. With abundant opportunities for imaginative sets and costumes and familiar characters that prove that beauty is in the eye of the ogre, Shrek JR. is a great choice for young performers. The curtain opens on a trio of Storytellers sharing the tale of a little ogre named Shrek. Papa and Mama Ogre sit Shrek down and have a coming-of-age talk with their son, telling him that since he is now seven years old, it is time for him to make his own place in the world, and he must leave home ("Big Bright Beautiful World"). As the years pass, Shrek transforms into an adult and finds contentment living alone in a swamp on the edge of the kingdom of Duloc. Suddenly, the Captain of the Guards appears, leading a large group of Fairy Tale Creatures into the swamp, including Pinocchio, the Big Bad Wolf, the Three Little Pigs, the Wicked Witch, Peter Pan, the Ugly Duckling, and the Three Bears. The characters have been exiled from the kingdom of Duloc and banished to live in the swamp ("Story Of My Life"). Shrek returns home to find his once private swamp now teeming with the new inhabitants and angrily sets off to confront the leader of Duloc about the injustice. As Shrek makes his way through a dense forest, he encounters a screaming Donkey under pursuit by more Guards from Duloc. Shrek scares off the guards, and, having lost his way, reluctantly agrees to let Donkey be his guide, despite his better judgment. Meanwhile, in Duloc, the Guards sing of the "gentrification" of the kingdom ("What's Up, Duloc? - Part 1"). Lord Farquadd appears, questioning the captive Gingy as to the whereabouts of an available princess that Farquaad could marry in order to become king and justly gain control of all of Duloc. Threatened with torture, Gingy relinquishes the information - there is a princess in a tower guarded by a dragon and surrounded by boiling-hot lava. Just as Farquaad and the residents of Duloc begin to celebrate their future queen ("What's Up, Duloc? - Part 2"), Shrek and Donkey arrive. Shrek demands the swamp be rightfully returned to him, and seizing an opportunity, Farquaad agrees to find a new home for the Fairy Tale Creatures if Shrek retrieves the princess for him. High in her tower, Young Fiona dreams of being rescued by a handsome prince and living the idyllic fairy tale dream ("I Know It's Today"). The years pass, and Fiona grows more anxious day after day, nervous that the stories she's read have misled her. Despite her frustrations, she remains hopeful. Meanwhile, Donkey passes time on the long journey by singing ("Travel Song"). Shrek and Donkey arrive at the castle, and, donning a knight's helmet he finds in the castle for protection, Shrek tells Donkey to wait while he rescues the princess. Shrek climbs Fiona's tower while she excitedly prepares for the arrival of her prince. The meeting doesn't go quite as Fiona had planned, and she mistakes Shrek for a brave knight due to his helmet. Shrek doesn't have time to correct this oversight, as Donkey is now being pursued by the Dragon. Cornered in the dungeon, four imprisoned Knights warn Donkey that he may wind up like them. The Dragon, frustrated that no one ever pursues her, sings of her loneliness ("Forever"). Falling madly in love with Donkey, the Dragon spares his life, but attacks Shrek when she sees he's freed Fiona. The two battle, and Fiona finally gets her storybook adventure ("This Is How A Dream Comes True"). Having escaped the dragon, the group sets off for Duloc. Shrek reveals to Fiona that he is actually an ogre and has rescued her for Lord Farquaad. As the sun sets, Fiona demands to set up camp and disappears into a cave for the duration of the night. The Storytellers reveal that Fiona has been placed under a curse causing her to live "by day one way, by night another." The next morning, Fiona is chipper and highly caffeinated ("Morning Person"). She greets the woodland creatures, including the Pied Piper and his disorderly Rats, with cheerful optimism. The group continues their journey and Shrek and Fiona bond over their horrible lives thus far ("I Think I Got You Beat"). The song ends in a gassy display of bravado, and the two become friends. Donkey is convinced that their relationship is actually a budding romance ("Make A Move"). Having reached Duloc, Fiona postpones meeting Lord Farquaad for one more night, and retires to a nearby barn to sleep as the sun sets. That night, Donkey stumbles into the barn and discovers Fiona's secret - she has transformed into an ogress. Fiona explains that she has been cursed to live by day as a human and by night as an ogre, and sees Lord Farquaad as her only chance for happiness because no one could ever love an ugly ogre. Shrek, who has worked up the courage to tell Fiona how he feels about her, overhears only the last part of Fiona's conversation with Donkey from outside the barn, and thinks she is talking about him. The next morning, Shrek admits to Fiona the he heard everything she said. Fiona now thinks that he knows her secret and is unable to love her because of it. Just then, Lord Farquaad arrives to claim Fiona. He hands over the deed to Shrek's swamp, and makes plans to marry Fiona that night. Hurt, Fiona accepts and leaves with him. The Fairy Tale Creatures drudge on, having been evicted from the swamp. Donkey pleads with Shrek to try to win back Fiona, and the Fairy Tale Creatures agree that he must be proud of who he is rather than ashamed by it ("Freak Flag"). With a sense of empowerment and a plan of action, the group decides to return to Duloc. Just as the Bishop is about to marry Fiona and Lord Farquaad, Shrek and the Fairy Tale Creatures burst in. Shrek professes his love for Fiona ("Big Bright Beautiful World - Reprise"), and the Fairy Tale Creatures reveal Lord Farquaad's father - a grumpy Dwarf. The discovery that Farquaad is actually a "freak" like the Fairy Tale Creatures he condemned shocks and surprises everyone. During this, the sun has gone down and Fiona has transformed into an ogress. Disgusted, Lord Farquaad claims that the marriage is binding - he is now king and shall lock Fiona back in the tower forever and rule Duloc himself. Just then, the Dragon crashes through the castle wall and heaves a fiery breath at Farquaad. Afterward, all that's left of him is his scorched crown. Shrek and Fiona finally share "true love's kiss," and although the spell is broken, Fiona doesn't turn back into a human. Shrek convinces her that she is beautiful just as she is, and everyone celebrates their individuality ("Finale"). Audio Sampler - HL00127656 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00127646 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Books Choreography DVD Director's Guide 30 Family Matters Booklets Media Disk 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Piano/Vocal Score 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00127647 - Director's Guide $100.00 00127648 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00127649 - Actor's Script $10.00 00127650 - Actor's Script 10-Pak $75.00 00127651 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00127652 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00127653 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-Pak $100.00 00127654 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00127655 - Media Disc $10.00 00127656 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Big Bright Beautiful World Story of My Life What's Up, Duloc (Part 1) What's Up, Duloc (Part 2) What's Up, Duloc (Reprise) I Know It's Today Travel Song Dragon Roar Forever This Is How A Dream Comes True Morning Person (Reprise) Freak Flag Big Bright Beautiful World (Reprise) Finale I'm A Believer Cast Size Large (over 20), Flexible Cast Type Ensemble Cast - Many featured roles, Star Vehicle - Female, Star Vehicle - Male, Strong/Large Chorus Dance Requirement Standard (Musical Staging/Some Dance/Optional) DONKEY A talking donkey who joins Shrek on the run from Farquaad's guards. Quite the chatterbox, he is not deterred by Shrek's looks and practically forces himself into his good graces. Easily frightened and pushy, but also an optimistic with heart. DRAGON A dragon that has been charged with guarding Princess Fiona in her isolated castle. She eventually falls in love with Donkey and attempts to keep him there forever. Imposing and flirtatious, but tired of her job as the glorified baby-sitter. ENSEMBLE Fairytale Creatures(Big Bad Wolf, Three Little Pigs, White Rabbit, Fairy Godmother, Peter Pan, Wicked Witch, Ugly Duckling, Three Bears, Mad Hatter, Humpty Dumpty, Elf, Dwarf, Three Blind Mice); Angry Mob; Happy People; Guards; Knights; Rats FIONA The beautiful princess of Far Far Away, she transforms into an ogre every night when the sun sets. Rescued by Shrek and eventually falls in love with him. Quirky, blunt, and multitalented, she is not an ordinary princess. GINGY A gingerbread man initially kidnapped by Lord Farquaad. His wit and resolution help him both avoid trouble and inspire the rest of the fairytale creatures. Puppet. Can be operated by actress appearing as Sugar Plum Fairy. LORD FARQUAAD The comically short, ruthless ruler of Duloc. He is in search of a princes to marry so that he can become king. Has an intensely unfair bias against fairytale creatures that stems from a resentment of his father. Self-absorbed, lonely, and cruel. PINOCCHIO The leader of the fairytale creatures. He is an animated puppet whose nose grows every time he lies. Plenty of sass with a penchant for lying. SHREK Our story's title character. A big, green, terrifying ogre who lives alone on a swamp. He embarks on a journey to rid his land of fairytale creatures and, along the way, falls in love with Fiona. Begins as a grumpy hermit, but reveals his layers and eventually becomes the hero.
All Shook Up - Young @ Part Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Inspired by and featuring the songs of Elvis Presley Book: Joe DiPietro Overview / Synopsis It's 1955 and into a square little town rides a guitar-playing young man who changes everything and everyone he meets. Loosely based on Shakespeare's and into a square little town rides a guitar-playing young man who changes everything and everyone he meets. Loosely based on jumpin' out of your blue suede shoes with such classics as Teddy Bear, Don't Be Cruel, Hound Dog, and Jailhouse Rock. With great roles for girls and boys and an irresistible rock 'n' roll pedigree, this 60-70 minute Broadway adaptation is an unforgettable thrill for middle school-age performers and their audiences. Print Perusal - HL00237277 $19.95 ShowBox - HL00237272 $625.00 This ShowBox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD Young @ Part Request Individual Components 00251170 - Director's Script $50.00 00251171 - Cast Script/Vocal Book $10.00 00251173 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00251174 - Guide Vocals CD $50.00 00251175 - Performance Tracks CD $100.00 Hear A Sample Jailhouse Rock Heartbreak Hotel Roustabout C'mon Everybody Follow That Dream Teddy-Hound It's Now or Never Love Me Tender Blue Suede Shoes Don't Be Cruel Falling in Love All Shook Up Devil in Disguise Fools Fall Finale/All Shook Up Natalie Haller Although she's a teenager, she's an excellent mechanic. She's much more at home in greasy overalls than a dress. Gender: Female Vocal Range: A3-D5 Chad A great-lookin', motorbike-ridin', guitar-playin', leather-jacketed roustabout. Gender: Male Vocal Range: E3-D5 Sylvia The no-nonsense owner of Sylvia's Honky-Tonk Cafe. Gender: Female Vocal Range: A3-D5 Lorraine Sylvia's daughter. Gender: Female Vocal Range: C4-F5 Dennis An awkward young man. He aspires to be a dentist. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Ab3-Bb4 Sandra The beautiful, intellectual caretaker of the town's museum. Gender: Female Vocal Range: F#3-D5 Mayor Matilda Hyde The town's very conservative mayor. Gender: Female Vocal Range: Bb3-E5 Dean Hyde Matilda's teenage son. He has spent his youth at military boarding schools and he has never disobeyed his mother. Gender: Male Sheriff Earl The law in town and a man of not many words. He loyally follows the Mayor wherever she goes. Gender: Male Prisoners Gender: Both Townspeople Gender: Both
Spamalot - Young @ Part Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Original Book, Music and Lyrics: Eric Idle Music and Lyrics: John Du Prez Overview / Synopsis Lovingly ripped off from the classic film comedy Monty Python and the Holy Grail, this middle school adaptation of Monty Python's SPAMALOT retells the legend of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. The 2005 Broadway production won three Tony® Awards, including Best Musical, and was followed by two successful West End runs. The outrageous, uproarious, and gloriously entertaining story of King Arthur and the Lady of the Lake will delight casts and audiences as they search for the Holy Grail and "always look on the bright side of life." Print Perusal - HL00237279 $19.95 ShowBox - HL00237275 $625.00 This ShowBox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD Young @ Part Request Individual Components 00251185 - Director's Script $50.00 00251186 - Cast Script/Vocal Book $10.00 00251187 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00251188 - Guide Vocals CD $50.00 00251189 - Performance Tracks CD $100.00 Hear A Sample Introduction Fisch Schlapping Song King Arthur I Am Not Dead Yet Lady of the Lake Laker Girls The Song That Goes All For One Knights Round Table Find Your Grail Run Away Bright Side of Life Brave Sir Robin Whatever Happened All Alone The Hand of God Finale King Arthur The King of England who sets out on a quest to form the Knights of the Roundtable and find the Holy Grail. Great humor. Good singer. Gender: Male Vocal Range: G3-D5 Patsy King Arthur's horse and servant. Underappreciated but always longing for King Arthur's approval. Good, funny, physical mover with some tap dancing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: B3-D5 Sir Lancelot A Knight of the Roundtable. He is fearless to a bloody fault but through a twist of fate, does discover his 'softer side.' Gender: Male Vocal Range: Ab3-Eb5 Sir Robin A Knight of the Roundtable. Ironically called 'Sir Robin the Brave,' though he couldn't be more cowardly. Joins the Knights for the singing and dancing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-C5 Lady of the Lake A Diva. Strong, beautiful, possesses mystical powers. The leading lady of the show. Great singing voice is essential, as she must be able to sing effortlessly in many styles and vocal registers. Gender: Female Vocal Range: E3-G5 Sir Galahad A Knight of the Roundtable. Begins as Dennis, a lower class 'mud gatherer' who becomes Knighted and transforms into the dashing Sir Galahad. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Bb3-D5 Sir Bedevere A Knight of the Roundtable. An inept scholar. No solo singing. Gender: Male Vocal Range: D4-D5 Minstrels Gender: Both Vocal Range: B3-D5 Historians Gender: Both Vocal Range: A3-A4 Ensemble
All Shook Up - Younger @ Part Menu LEARN MORE About Young @ Part Showbox/Added Resources Order a Perusal Pack Online License Request 60-Min.ute Musicals [Young@Part] 60-Minute Musicals Addams Family All Shook Up Curtains Monty Python's Spamalot 30-Min.ute Musicals [Younger@Part] 30-Minute Musicals All Shook Up How I Became A Pirate Miss Nelson Is Missing Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Inspired by and featuring the songs of ELVIS PRESLEY® Book: Joe DiPietro Originally Produced on Broadway by Jonathan Pollard, Bernie Kukoff, Clear Channel Entertainment, Harbor Entertainment, Miramax Films, Bob & Harvey Weinstein, Stanley Buchthal, Eric Falkenstein, Nina Essman/Nancy Nagel Gibbs, Jean Cheever, Margaret Cotter, in association with Barney Rosenzweig, Meri Krassner, FGRW Investments, Karen Jason, Phil Ciasullo Conard. Originally produced for Goodspeed Musicals, Michael P. Price, Executive Producer, Sue Frost, Associate Producer. Overview / Synopsis Now available for elementary-school productions! Loosely based on Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, this hip-swiveling, lip-curling musical fantasy set in 1955 will have you jumpin' out of your blue suede shoes with such classics as Teddy Bear, Hound Dog, and Jailhouse Rock. Great roles for girls and boys, a peerless rock pedigree and swingin' dance numbers specially broken down for elementary schoolers in the included choreographic instructional videos Print Perusal - HL00292433 $19.95 ShowBox - HL00292432 $495.00 This ShowBox includes: 30 Cast Script/Vocal Books Director's Script 2 Piano/Vocal Scores Guide Vocals CD Performance Tracks CD Logo Pack CD Young @ Part Request Individual Components 00292414 - Director's Script $50.00 00292415 - Cast Script/Vocal Book $10.00 00292416 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00292429 - Guide Vocals CD $50.00 00292430 - Performance Tracks CD $100.00 Hear A Sample Jailhouse Rock C'mon Everybody TeddyBear/Hound Dog It's Now or Never Love Me Tender Blue Suede Shoes Can't Help Falling in Love All Shook Up Finale Natalie Haller Although she's a teenager, she's an excellent mechanic. She's much more at home in greasy overalls than a dress. Chad A great-lookin', motorbike-ridin', guitar-playin', leather-jacketed roustabout. Sylvia The no-nonsense owner of Sylvia's Honky-Tonk Cafe. Lorraine Sylvia's daughter. Dennis An awkward young man. He aspires to be a dentist. Sandra The beautiful, intellectual caretaker of the town's museum. Mayor Matilda Hyde The town's very conservative mayor. Dean Hyde Matilda's teenage son. He has spent his youth at military boarding schools and he has never disobeyed his mother. Sheriff Earl The law in town and a man of not many words. He loyally follows the Mayor wherever she goes. Male & Female Ensemble These actors play an assortment of TOWNSPEOPLE and are featured throughout the show.
HLSPL Testimonials Hal Leonard Student Piano Library What makes the Hal Leonard Student Piano Library so popular? We believe that comments from teachers around the country best answer this question for us. Here's what teachers are saying about the Hal Leonard Student Piano Library. "I enjoy the Hal Leonard curriculum immensely and have been especially impressed with the patriotic music that has been published. I have converted all my students to the HL series…my students are delighted with the music available in your series. And that is the reason we are teaching - so students can enjoy playing music. Thank you for making teaching a pleasure for me and a joy for the children." - Sandi Denklau, Lisle, IL "I gradually made the switch a couple of years ago to your books as my 'method'…My students LOVE the duet accompaniments!!! I am especially impressed with Book 5 with its inclusion of so many standard repertoire pieces along with excellent jazz/pop arrangements and excellent 'today's sounds' pieces, all using good pedagogical principles. Congrats on a great series!" - Susan Engle, Ann Arbor, MI "What I like most about the HLSPL is the variety of music. All of the pieces are beautiful, with or without the CD. I teach a lot of young beginners, and most method books start out on the black notes, as yours does. The big difference is that the pieces in your method are artistic right from the beginning. The children love the illustrations. And I love seeing results." - Karen Ferguson, Coquitlam, BC Canada "Your method is terrific! After 35 years of teaching you have made my job more exciting. My beginning students feel like they are really playing the piano when I accompany them with your innovative harmonies and rhythms. Even your new lyrics to familiar melodies are so clever and updated they make me and the students laugh." - Connie Garbo, Lake Charles, LA "I am enjoying using your materials tremendously! I've been teaching for almost 30 years and have tried many different methods, but I like yours the best! … I look forward to every new addition you make to the line and am confident that each one will be of the same high quality that I've come to expect from you. Thank you for developing such a MUSICAL way to teach children to play the piano. The duet parts are simply the best!" - Sylvia Eastwold, Montgomery, AL "I just love the accompaniment CDs that correspond to the different method books. I am purchasing these CDs from Level 1 on up and using them with all of my students who use the Hal Leonard method books. I have noticed a significant improvement in the students working with the CDs. Rhythm, timing, and ear training are all gradually improving as I have my students play along with the CDs. I have used most of the other methods available and prefer the Hal Leonard one because of the easily understandable explanations and repetitive drills on new concepts." - Heidi Meves, Green Bay, WI "I came on your website specifically to write you and let you know that I have been using your piano method books from the time that you introduced them. I love them so much. … I wish you could hear some of my students some time. They play so beautifully and learn so much faster and more thoroughly since I started using your method. … Finally, I just want to say thank you for combining your lesson books and CDs at such an affordable price. It has to be the absolute best value in the market today." - Kristi McIntyre, Franklin, TN HAL LEONARD STUDENT PIANO LIBRARY What makes the Hal Leonard Student Piano Library so popular? We believe that comments from teachers around the country best answer this question for us. Here's what teachers are saying about the Hal Leonard Student Piano Library. "I enjoy the Hal Leonard curriculum immensely and have been especially impressed with the patriotic music that has been published. I have converted all my students to the HL series…my students are delighted with the music available in your series. And that is the reason we are teaching - so students can enjoy playing music. Thank you for making teaching a pleasure for me and a joy for the children." - Sandi Denklau, Lisle, IL "I gradually made the switch a couple of years ago to your books as my 'method'…My students LOVE the duet accompaniments!!! I am especially impressed with Book 5 with its inclusion of so many standard repertoire pieces along with excellent jazz/pop arrangements and excellent 'today's sounds' pieces, all using good pedagogical principles. Congrats on a great series!" - Susan Engle, Ann Arbor, MI "What I like most about the HLSPL is the variety of music. All of the pieces are beautiful, with or without the CD. I teach a lot of young beginners, and most method books start out on the black notes, as yours does. The big difference is that the pieces in your method are artistic right from the beginning. The children love the illustrations. And I love seeing results." - Karen Ferguson, Coquitlam, BC Canada "Your method is terrific! After 35 years of teaching you have made my job more exciting. My beginning students feel like they are really playing the piano when I accompany them with your innovative harmonies and rhythms. Even your new lyrics to familiar melodies are so clever and updated they make me and the students laugh." - Connie Garbo, Lake Charles, LA "I am enjoying using your materials tremendously! I've been teaching for almost 30 years and have tried many different methods, but I like yours the best! … I look forward to every new addition you make to the line and am confident that each one will be of the same high quality that I've come to expect from you. Thank you for developing such a MUSICAL way to teach children to play the piano. The duet parts are simply the best!" - Sylvia Eastwold, Montgomery, AL "I just love the accompaniment CDs that correspond to the different method books. I am purchasing these CDs from Level 1 on up and using them with all of my students who use the Hal Leonard method books. I have noticed a significant improvement in the students working with the CDs. Rhythm, timing, and ear training are all gradually improving as I have my students play along with the CDs. I have used most of the other methods available and prefer the Hal Leonard one because of the easily understandable explanations and repetitive drills on new concepts." - Heidi Meves, Green Bay, WI "I came on your website specifically to write you and let you know that I have been using your piano method books from the time that you introduced them. I love them so much. … I wish you could hear some of my students some time. They play so beautifully and learn so much faster and more thoroughly since I started using your method. … Finally, I just want to say thank you for combining your lesson books and CDs at such an affordable price. It has to be the absolute best value in the market today." - Kristi McIntyre, Franklin, TN Hal Leonard Online - HLSPL Testimonials
EE2000 Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements for Strings Book 2 Play-Along Accompaniments Exercises 72 - end (MP3 files) Tuning Notes 072. Rhythm Rap 073. Blueberry Pie 074. Technique Trax 075. Rhythm Rap 076. Marching Along 077. On The Move 078. Rhythm Etude - Duet 079. Essential Elements Quiz - Rhythm Round-Up 080. Rhythm Rap 081. Technique Trax 082. Hooked On D Major 083. The Mountain Climber 084. Keep It Short 085. Essential Creativity 086. Rhythm Rap 087. Syncopation Time 088. Mirror Image 089. Children's Shoes 090. Hooked On Syncopation 091. Essential Elements Quiz - Tom Dooley 092. Let's Read "B-flat" 093. Rolling Along 094. Matching Octaves 095. Let's Read "F" 096. Technique Trax 097. F Major Scale 098. Theme From Violin Concerto 099. Let's Read "E-flat" 100. Hot Cross Buns 101. Let's Read "B-flat" 102. Viking Way 103. Hiking Along 104. B-flat Major Scale 105. Slovakian Folk Song 106. Cavalier Country 107. Essential Elements Quiz - Ayn Kaylokaynu 108. Let's Read "E-flat" 109. Technique Trax 110. Let's Read "B-flat" - Review 111. Technique Builder 112. B-flat Major Scale 113. The Mountain Deer Chase 114. Essential Creativity - Rakes Of Mallow 115. Rhythm Rap 116. Lazy Day 117. Hooked On 6/8 118. Row, Row, Row Your Boat - Round 119. Slurring In 6/8 Time 120. Jolly Good Fellow 121. Rhythm Rap 122. Rise And Fall 123. Beach Walk 124. May Time 125. D Minor (Natural) Scale 126. Mahler's Theme - Round 127. Shalom Chaverim - Round 128. The Snake Charmer 129. G Minor (Natural) Scale 130. Hatikvah 131. G Minor (Natural) Scale 132. Essential Elements Quiz - The Hanukkah Song 133. Rhythm Rap 134. French Folk Song 135. Kum Ba Yah 136. Rhythm Rap 137. D Major Scale With Triplets 138. On The Move 139. Slurring Triplets 140. Triplet Etude 141. Little River 142. Field Song 143. Rhythm Rap 144. A Cut Above 145. Cut Time March 146. Rhythm Rap 147. Syncopation March 148. When The Saints Go Marchin' In 149. Rhythm Rap 150. Down Home 151. Moving Along 152. Rhythm Rap 153. Up Town 154. Flying Bows 155. March From Peasant's Cantata 156. Sagebrush Overture - Orchestra Arrangement 157. Pomp And Circumstance - Orchestra Arrangement 158. America The Beautiful - Orchestra Arrangement 159. La Bamba - Duet 160. In The Bleak Midwinter - Orchestra Arrangement 161. Swallowtail Jig - Orchestra Arrangement 162. Sight-Reading Challenge #1 163. Sight-Reading Challenge #2 164. Sight-Reading Challenge #3 165. Sight-Reading Challenge #4 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174. 3-4 Pattern 175. 2-3 Pattern 176. 1-2 Pattern 177. Open Pattern 178. E String 179. A String 180. D String 181. G String 182. C String 183. C Major 184. G Major 185. D Major 186. A Major 187. F Major 188. B-flat Major 189. C Major 190. C Major 191. G Major 192. G Major 193. D Major 194. D Major 195. A Major 196. A Major 197. F Major 198. B-flat Major 199. B-flat Major 200. D Minor 201. D Minor 202. G Minor 203. G Minor 209. Two At A Time 210. Adding Fingers ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR STRINGS BOOK 2 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS EXERCISES 72 - END (MP3 FILES) Tuning Notes 072. Rhythm Rap 073. Blueberry Pie 074. Technique Trax 075. Rhythm Rap 076. Marching Along 077. On The Move 078. Rhythm Etude - Duet 079. Essential Elements Quiz - Rhythm Round-Up 080. Rhythm Rap 081. Technique Trax 082. Hooked On D Major 083. The Mountain Climber 084. Keep It Short 085. Essential Creativity 086. Rhythm Rap 087. Syncopation Time 088. Mirror Image 089. Children's Shoes 090. Hooked On Syncopation 091. Essential Elements Quiz - Tom Dooley 092. Let's Read "B-flat" 093. Rolling Along 094. Matching Octaves 095. Let's Read "F" 096. Technique Trax 097. F Major Scale 098. Theme From Violin Concerto 099. Let's Read "E-flat" 100. Hot Cross Buns 101. Let's Read "B-flat" 102. Viking Way 103. Hiking Along 104. B-flat Major Scale 105. Slovakian Folk Song 106. Cavalier Country 107. Essential Elements Quiz - Ayn Kaylokaynu 108. Let's Read "E-flat" 109. Technique Trax 110. Let's Read "B-flat" - Review 111. Technique Builder 112. B-flat Major Scale 113. The Mountain Deer Chase 114. Essential Creativity - Rakes Of Mallow 115. Rhythm Rap 116. Lazy Day 117. Hooked On 6/8 118. Row, Row, Row Your Boat - Round 119. Slurring In 6/8 Time 120. Jolly Good Fellow 121. Rhythm Rap 122. Rise And Fall 123. Beach Walk 124. May Time 125. D Minor (Natural) Scale 126. Mahler's Theme - Round 127. Shalom Chaverim - Round 128. The Snake Charmer 129. G Minor (Natural) Scale 130. Hatikvah 131. G Minor (Natural) Scale 132. Essential Elements Quiz - The Hanukkah Song 133. Rhythm Rap 134. French Folk Song 135. Kum Ba Yah 136. Rhythm Rap 137. D Major Scale With Triplets 138. On The Move 139. Slurring Triplets 140. Triplet Etude 141. Little River 142. Field Song 143. Rhythm Rap 144. A Cut Above 145. Cut Time March 146. Rhythm Rap 147. Syncopation March 148. When The Saints Go Marchin' In 149. Rhythm Rap 150. Down Home 151. Moving Along 152. Rhythm Rap 153. Up Town 154. Flying Bows 155. March From Peasant's Cantata 156. Sagebrush Overture - Orchestra Arrangement 157. Pomp And Circumstance - Orchestra Arrangement 158. America The Beautiful - Orchestra Arrangement 159. La Bamba - Duet 160. In The Bleak Midwinter - Orchestra Arrangement 161. Swallowtail Jig - Orchestra Arrangement 162. Sight-Reading Challenge #1 163. Sight-Reading Challenge #2 164. Sight-Reading Challenge #3 165. Sight-Reading Challenge #4 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174. 3-4 Pattern 175. 2-3 Pattern 176. 1-2 Pattern 177. Open Pattern 178. E String 179. A String 180. D String 181. G String 182. C String 183. C Major 184. G Major 185. D Major 186. A Major 187. F Major 188. B-flat Major 189. C Major 190. C Major 191. G Major 192. G Major 193. D Major 194. D Major 195. A Major 196. A Major 197. F Major 198. B-flat Major 199. B-flat Major 200. D Minor 201. D Minor 202. G Minor 203. G Minor 209. Two At A Time 210. Adding Fingers Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
Disney's The Little Mermaid Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Lyrics by Glenn Slater Book by Doug Wright Lyrics by Howard Ashman Music by Alan Menken Overview / Synopsis In a magical kingdom fathoms below, the beautiful young mermaid Ariel longs to leave her ocean home to live in the world above. But first, she'll have to defy her father, King Triton, make a deal with the evil sea witch, Ursula, and convince Prince Eric that she's the girl with the enchanting voice. Adapted from Disney's 2008 Broadway production, Disney's The Little Mermaid JR. features the hit songs such as "Part of Your World," "She's in Love," and the Oscar®-winning "Under the Sea." Audio Sampler - HL08754783 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971687 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971685 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971684 - Director's Script $100.00 09971686 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971745 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971688 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971689 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971691 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971744 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971690 - Media Disc $10.00 08754783 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Fathoms Below [Pilot, Sailors, Prince Eric, Grimsby] Daughters of Triton [Mersisters] Human Stuff [Scuttle, Gulls, Ariel, Flounder] Part of Your World [Ariel] Under the Sea [Sebastian, Sea Creatures] Part of Your World (Reprise) [Ariel] She's in Love [Mersisters, Flounder] Poor Unfortunate Souls [Ursula, Flotsam, Jetsam, Tentacles] Beluga Sevruga [Ursula, Ariel] Les Poissons [Chef Louis, Chefs] One Step Closer [Prince Eric] Kiss the Girl [Sebastian, Lagoon Animals] The Contest [Grimsby, Princesses] Poor Unfortunate Souls (Reprise) [Ursula, Tentacles] Part of Your World (Finale) [Ariel, Company] Under the Sea (Bows) [Company] Ariel Ariel, the heroine of our story, is a little mermaid who longs to be human. Cast a strong singer and dynamic performer in this role. Ariel has some beautiful solos but must be able to convey meaning through gesture once she loses her voice. PRINCE ERIC Prince Eric is the adventurous prince who captures Ariel's heart. Look for a charming performer with a sensitive nature. Prince Eric has a few small solos, but it is more important to cast a strong actor in this role. SEBASTIAN Sebastian is the meticulous and anxious crab who tries to keep Ariel safe while getting to lead some of the most memorable songs in the show! Sebastian can be played by a boy or girl. FLOUNDER Flounder is Ariel's sincere and sensitive best friend who is loyal to the end. This spunky fish also has a show-stopping solo in "She's in Love." Flounder can be cast with a girl or a boy with an unchanged voice. KING TRITON King Triton rules the sea and is a force to be reckoned with. This non-singer needs to command the stage as a strong leader but also show the tenderness of a parent. Cast a mature performer who feels comfortable playing father to Ariel and the Mersisters. The Mersisters The Mersisters (Aquata, Andrina, Arista, Atina, Adella, Allana) are Ariel's siblings and full of personality and sass. These are great roles to showcase talented singers and dancers who can create and play six distinctive characters. URSULA Ursula is the manipulative sea witch who tries to overthrow King Triton. She is cunning and devious and will stop at nothing to get what she wants. TENTACLES The Tentacles are extensions of Ursula, perhaps the poor unfortunate souls who are now trapped in her lair. FLOTSAM & JETSAM Flotsam & Jetsam are Ursula's slippery spies. These electric eels are sinister and sneaky, so look for performers who can be underhanded and devious while still being heard on stage. Flotsam and Jetsam can be played by boys or girls. SCUTTLE Scuttle is the know-it-all seagull who serves as Ariel's expert on humans. He is funny and off-beat. Look for a performer with good comedic timing who is willing to have fun with Scuttle's eccentricities. Gulls The Gulls are Scuttle's flock of zany "back-up singers" who help explain human stuff to Ariel. GRIMSBY Grimsby is Prince Eric's prim and proper valet. He is rigid in personality and constantly trying to guide Prince Eric towards the throne. CHEF LOUIS Chef Louis is the over-the-top head chef in the palace. He is always wild and frenetic. This is an excellent featured role for a comedic performer. THE CHEFS The Chefs are Chef Louis's assistants. CARLOTTA Carlotta is the headmistress in Prince Eric's palace and Ariel's greatest human ally. This non-singing role needs to be warm and maternal to make Ariel feel welcome. THE SIX PRINCESSES The six Princesses try everything they can to win the heart of Prince Eric. The six Princesses can double as the six Mersisters. THE PILOT The Pilot is the head sailor on Prince Eric's ship. THE SAILORS The Sailors are the crew of Prince Eric's ship. THE SEAHORSE The Seahorse is the court herald for King Triton. SEA CHORUS The Sea Chorus is responsible for creating each world within the show. The Sea Chorus can double as Merfolk, Sea Creatures and Lagoon Animals. MERFOLK The Merfolk of King Triton's Court and can double as Sea Creatures. LAGOON ANIMALS The Lagoon Animals try to convince Prince Eric to kiss Ariel. This ensemble can double as the Sea Creatures.
EE2000 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR STRINGS BOOK 2 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS EXERCISES 72 - END (MP3 FILES) Tuning Notes 072. Rhythm Rap 073. Blueberry Pie 074. Technique Trax 075. Rhythm Rap 076. Marching Along 077. On The Move 078. Rhythm Etude - Duet 079. Essential Elements Quiz - Rhythm Round-Up 080. Rhythm Rap 081. Technique Trax 082. Hooked On D Major 083. The Mountain Climber 084. Keep It Short 085. Essential Creativity 086. Rhythm Rap 087. Syncopation Time 088. Mirror Image 089. Children's Shoes 090. Hooked On Syncopation 091. Essential Elements Quiz - Tom Dooley 092. Let's Read "B-flat" 093. Rolling Along 094. Matching Octaves 095. Let's Read "F" 096. Technique Trax 097. F Major Scale 098. Theme From Violin Concerto 099. Let's Read "E-flat" 100. Hot Cross Buns 101. Let's Read "B-flat" 102. Viking Way 103. Hiking Along 104. B-flat Major Scale 105. Slovakian Folk Song 106. Cavalier Country 107. Essential Elements Quiz - Ayn Kaylokaynu 108. Let's Read "E-flat" 109. Technique Trax 110. Let's Read "B-flat" - Review 111. Technique Builder 112. B-flat Major Scale 113. The Mountain Deer Chase 114. Essential Creativity - Rakes Of Mallow 115. Rhythm Rap 116. Lazy Day 117. Hooked On 6/8 118. Row, Row, Row Your Boat - Round 119. Slurring In 6/8 Time 120. Jolly Good Fellow 121. Rhythm Rap 122. Rise And Fall 123. Beach Walk 124. May Time 125. D Minor (Natural) Scale 126. Mahler's Theme - Round 127. Shalom Chaverim - Round 128. The Snake Charmer 129. G Minor (Natural) Scale 130. Hatikvah 131. G Minor (Natural) Scale 132. Essential Elements Quiz - The Hanukkah Song 133. Rhythm Rap 134. French Folk Song 135. Kum Ba Yah 136. Rhythm Rap 137. D Major Scale With Triplets 138. On The Move 139. Slurring Triplets 140. Triplet Etude 141. Little River 142. Field Song 143. Rhythm Rap 144. A Cut Above 145. Cut Time March 146. Rhythm Rap 147. Syncopation March 148. When The Saints Go Marchin' In 149. Rhythm Rap 150. Down Home 151. Moving Along 152. Rhythm Rap 153. Up Town 154. Flying Bows 155. March From Peasant's Cantata 156. Sagebrush Overture - Orchestra Arrangement 157. Pomp And Circumstance - Orchestra Arrangement 158. America The Beautiful - Orchestra Arrangement 159. La Bamba - Duet 160. In The Bleak Midwinter - Orchestra Arrangement 161. Swallowtail Jig - Orchestra Arrangement 162. Sight-Reading Challenge #1 163. Sight-Reading Challenge #2 164. Sight-Reading Challenge #3 165. Sight-Reading Challenge #4 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174. 3-4 Pattern 175. 2-3 Pattern 176. 1-2 Pattern 177. Open Pattern 178. E String 179. A String 180. D String 181. G String 182. C String 183. C Major 184. G Major 185. D Major 186. A Major 187. F Major 188. B-flat Major 189. C Major 190. C Major 191. G Major 192. G Major 193. D Major 194. D Major 195. A Major 196. A Major 197. F Major 198. B-flat Major 199. B-flat Major 200. D Minor 201. D Minor 202. G Minor 203. G Minor 209. Two At A Time 210. Adding Fingers
20th Century French Art Songs Hal Leonard Online - French Art Songs 20th CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968). 20TH CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
EE2000 Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Brass & Woodwinds Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR BRASS & WOODWINDS EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
EE2000 Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Percussion Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR PERCUSSION EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired group and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
Disney's Beauty And The Beast Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Alan Menken Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice Book by Linda Woolverton Overview / Synopsis Based on the acclaimed films and Tony®-winning Broadway musical, Beauty and the Beast JR., tells the story of the bright and beautiful Belle, who yearns to escape her provincial life... and her brute of a suitor, Gaston. However, Belle gets more adventure than she wished for when she becomes a captive in the Beast's enchanted castle! Dancing flatware, menacing wolves, and singing furniture fill the stage with thrills in this beloved fairy tale about two very different people finding strength in one another and learning how to love. Audio Sampler - HL00125498 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00125488 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00125490 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00125489 - Director's Script $100.00 00125491 - Actor's Script $10.00 00125492 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 00125493 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00125496 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00125494 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00125495 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 00125497 - Media Disc $10.00 00125498 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample SCENE 1 Belle [All] SCENE 4 Belle (Reprise) [Silly Girls, Belle] SCENE 5 Home [Belle] Home (Tag) [Mrs. Potts, Madame] SCENE 6 Gaston [Lefou, Silly Girls, Gaston, All] Gaston (Reprise) [Gaston, Lefou] SCENE 7 Be Our Guest [Lumiere, Chip, Flatware,Mrs. Potts, All] SCENE 9 Something There [Belle, Beast, Lumiere, Cogsworth, Mrs. Potts, Madame, Babette] Human Again [Lumiere, Mrs. Potts, Chip, Babette, Madame, Cogsworth, All] SCENE 11 Beauty and the Beast [Mrs. Potts] SCENE 12 The Mob Song [Villagers, Gaston, Monsieur, Lefou] SCENE 13 Home (Reprise) [Belle] Finale [All] Narrators The Narrators provide great opportunities to involve children that are more comfortable speaking than singing. The script is written to feature four Narrators, but you could adapt the roles to incorporate more students (or fewer) depending on the size of your cast. Be sure the students you cast in these roles can enunciate and project, as they are key to the momentum of this beautiful tale. You can cast the school principal, a teacher or a wellknown community member as the one of the Narrators to get your entire community involved. These roles can be completely non-singing, but the actors could be cast from your ensemble if desired. Belle Belle is a smart, confident young woman from a small village. You will want to cast a child who is a strong singer and actress. Belle needs to be able to stand up to Gaston (and the Beast!) as well as those who don't seem to understand her, while being able to show compassion for her father, the Servants, and eventually the Beast. During auditions, you can bet that most of the girls will be trying out for the role of Belle. If there are several female students in your school that could perform the role, you should consider casting two girls to play Belle on alternating nights, sharing the responsibility of this large role. Maurice Maurice is an eccentric, older inventor, yet more importantly, the adoring and protective father of Belle. This non-solo singing role is perfect for the student who can have fun interpreting this "crazy old man" while conveying some very strong emotions: fear and fatherly love! The Beast The Beast is the master of the castle who was transformed by the Enchantress's spell. Casting for size is not as important as choosing a student that can handle this complex character: a dictator, a hurt child, a hero, a defender and a smitten prince. Cast an actor who can deliver a range of conflicting emotional states. While the Beast does sing a small bit during "Something There" and the "Finale," this is truly an acting role with no demanding singing required. It is absolutely possible to cast a non-singer as the Beast and have the student speak/sing his lyrics. Also, keep in mind that if you choose to cast the Prince separately from the Beast, the Prince would end up singing the Beast's lines in the "Finale." Gaston Gaston is pompous and dim-witted and will do whatever it takes to win Belle's hand. Gaston has all the confidence in the world, but lacks the humility to balance it. A strong singing and speaking voice and acting ability are more important than size and stature for this role. He has to be able to sell his big number, "Gaston," with gusto and arrogance as well as lead the troops in "The Mob Song." Biceps can humorously be added, but the bravura needs to be there on the inside! Lefou Lefou is Gaston's equally dim-witted lackey. You might consider auditioning Lefou and Gaston in pairs. This character needs to be Gaston's foil and should double the laughs for them both. Lefou should be able to sing, act and dance. As a nice touch, you may choose to cast a student who has some gymnastic training if you wish to embed a lanky, awkward style into Lefou's movement. The Silly Girls The Silly Girls are in love with Gaston and will do almost anything just to be near him. Look for three girls who can portray the comic nature of these roles and who also enjoy playing off each other. The Silly Girls sing together in three numbers and their sound should mix well. Lumiere Lumiere is a self-confident, charming, French mâitre d' who (under the Enhantress's spell) is becoming a candelabra. He has a never-ending give-and-take with Cogsworth, so the student playing Lumiere must work well with the child you cast for that role. Consider auditioning in pairs. Lumiere should be a strong singer who can "light up" the stage in "Be Our Guest." If you have a child who can handle the French accent, fantastic! This role covers a range of emotions (from charming entertainer to brave soldier) and requires prominent song and dance, so try to cast a strong, reliable performer. Cogsworth Cogsworth is the English major-domo of the castle who is becoming a mantle clock. He, like all of the castle's Servants, shows a fatherly compassion for Belle yet is perfectly submissive to their master, the Beast. Cogsworth has two sides - he is a wee bit of a baby at times yet has no problem "getting into it" with Lumiere. Cast a strong actor and singer who enjoys acting "in charge" and is willing to try a British accent. Mrs. Potts Mrs. Potts is the castle's endearing cook who has been enchanted to become a teapot. Mrs. Potts needs a strong, sweet voice and should be able to convey comforting, maternal qualities amidst the chaos that is breaking out at the castle. See if you can find an actress who can portray a character whom every audience member would want for a mom. Babette Babette is the maid and "resident flirt" of the castle who is turning into a feather duster. She misses the finer things in life as well as just being a girl. Babette is happy to be at Belle's service at a moment's notice, but her true heart comes through in "Human Again." Look for a good actor with solid vocal skills to handle Babette's harmonies. Madame De La Grande Bouche Madame De La Grande Bouche is an opera singer who is becoming a wardrobe. Madame is almost larger than life in everything she does, including her singing and dancing. Look for that student who can portray the ultimate "diva with a heart" with a big personality and a big voice. Madame has some harmony lines with Mrs. Potts and Babette, so cast a singer who can hold her own, but also knows when to pull back in order to sound good with the others. Chip Chip is Mrs. Potts's son, who is becoming a teacup. You can certainly cast a much younger child for this role, but it is not imperative. Chip has a wonderful na�vet� that endears him to all of the Servants. Cast an actor who can portray the honesty and the spirit of a young person and is comfortable trying to sing Chip's few solo lines. If convincing, Chip will win the hearts of the entire audience. Old Beggar Woman / Enchantress The Old Beggar Woman / Enchantress should be an actor with the ability to be visually dramatic. Her transformation in the Prologue from the Old Beggar Woman to the Enchantress should magically entice all into the story. Monsieur D'Arque Monsieur D'Arque is the dark, creepy proprietor of the lunatic asylum who adds more tension to the story. Cast an actor who can believably interpret this sinister personality. While Monsieur does have a few lines of solo singing in "The Mob Song," this is primarily a non-singing role, so look for a solid actor first. Servants The Servants of the castle can include Statues, a Dust Pan, Flatware, Plates, an Egg Timer, Napkins, a Carpet, Salt & Pepper Shakers and whatever other household items or kitchenware you choose to cast in your show. These enchanted Servants are the "Rockettes" of their time. These students should be able to handle a potentially awkward costume while singing and dancing. These are great roles to cast multiple ages of children if you are trying to augment a cast. Look for good singers and dancers as they have two big production numbers to sell. Villagers The Villagers provide a colorful background singing throughout the show, and several also step into the action when needed to play in certain scenes. The featured roles vary in size and vocal requirements. The Ensemble will be needed to provide vocal power throughout the show and dance in the production numbers, so be sure to cast performers with a wide base of ability. These actors can double as the castle Servants if necessary.
Oklahoma - Getting To Know Collection Menu LEARN MORE About Getting To Know Cinderella The King And I Once Upon A Mattress Oklahoma! State Fair The Sound Of Music Footloose Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits A Brand New Adaptation by iTheatrics Music by Richard Rodgers Book and Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II Based on the play Green Grow the Lilacs by Lynn Riggs Originally Choreographed by Agnes de Mille Overview / Synopsis Rodgers & Hammerstein's first collaboration remains, in many ways, their most innovative, having set the standards and established the rules of musical theatre still being followed today. Set in a Western Indian territory just after the turn of the century, the high-spirited rivalry between the local farmers and cowboys provides the colorful background against which Curly, a handsome cowboy, and Laurey, a winsome farm girl, play out their love story. Although the road to true love never runs smooth, with these two headstrong romantics holding the reins, love's journey is as bumpy as a surrey ride down a country road. That they will succeed in making a new life together we have no doubt, and that this new life will begin in a brand-new state provides the ultimate climax to the triumphant Oklahoma! In this adaptation for pre-high school students, the content has been edited to better suit younger attention spans, but all the elements that make this show a classic are still in place. You and your students will be enchanted by the timeless story and the dazzling score, while at the same time learning about theater and its production. Run Time: Approximately 50-70 minutes A note from iTheatrics about this new adaptation: In each of our iTheatrics adaptations, we are careful to remain true to the storytelling of the original show. Our goal is for our adaptations to be as seamless as possible, allowing us to tell the story, but in a way that is appropriate for the age group. Our new adaptation of Oklahoma! eliminates the song "Poor Jud is Dead," as we found this song's subject matter challenging. In addition, we added back "Many A New Day" and "All Er Nuthin" to ensure more stage time for female performers. The response from teachers who attended our workshop productions, or who have piloted the show in their schools, has been incredibly positive. Perusal Pack - HL00125278 $15.00 Production Pack - HL00125281 $650.00 This Production Pack includes: 1 Piano / Vocal Score 30 Student Scripts 1 Production Guide 1 Vocal Tracks CD 1 Accompaniment Tracks CD 1 Guide to Choreography & Staging Disc 1 Digital Resources Disc Instant Digital Download Click For an Online License Request Individual Components 00125271 - Piano/Vocal Score $50.00 00125272 - Student Script $10.00 00125273 - Student Script 10-pak $50.00 00125274 - Production Guide $50.00 00125275 - Guide to Choreography & Staging $25.00 00125276 - Vocal Tracks CD $25.00 00125277 - Accompaniment Tracks CD $50.00 00125278 - Perusal Pack $15.00 00125279 - Digital Resources Disc $25.00 SCENE 1: The Front Yard of Laurey's Farmhouse Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin' [Curly, Aunt Eller, Ensemble] The Surrey with the Fringe on Top [Curly, Aunt Eller, Farmhands] Kansas City [Will, Aunt Eller, Solo 1, Solo 2, Ike, Rodeo Folk] I Cain't Say No [Ado Annie] Many a New Day* [Laurey, Girls] People Will Say We're In Love [Curly, Laurey. Ensemble] SCENE 2: The Skidmore Ranch The Farmer and the Cowman (Part 1) [Carnes, Aunt Eller, Will, Curley, Cord Elam, Fred, Vivian, Farmers, Cowman, Ensemble] The Farmer and the Cowman (Part 2) [Will, Curly, Aunt Eller, Farmers, Cowmen, Ensemble] Reprise: People Will Say We're In Love* [Curly, Laurey, Ensemble] All Er Nuthin'* [Will, Ado Annie] SCENE 3: The Back of Laurey's Farmhouse/Aunt Eller's Farm Oklahoma [Aunt Eller, Carnes, Curly, Laurey, Solo 1, Solo 2, Solo 3, Solo 4, Ensemble] Bows [Ensemble] * = Reinstated in the New Adaptation ** Eliminated in the New Adaptation: -"Poor Jud is Dead" Aunt Eller Aunt Eller is a sturdy farm woman who has managed to make a life on the frontier for herself and her niece, Laurey. She knows the value of cooperation and plays the role of peacemaker between the conflicting farmers and cowboys. She's a big-hearted woman who can easily empathize with others but who can also be tough when she has to be. Laurey Laurey is a strong, spunky farm girl. She has been raised by her Aunt Eller and has learned to be self-sufficient. Unlike some of her girl friends, she doesn't feel the need for a man to take care of her. Like Curly, she is too stubborn to let him know how she really feels about him. But when she is threatened by Jud, it's Curly she turns to for comfort. Ado Annie Ado Annie is a boy-crazy farm girl. She's too naive to know how to handle herself around men, which gets her into trouble. She tends to favor whichever boy she's with and although she has strong feelings for Will, her head is easily turned by any man who pays attention to her. Curly Curly is a confident cowboy with the kind of affable personality that people are drawn to. His strong ego sometimes causes him to be too sure of himself. He has a stubborn streak that keeps him from letting Laurey know how much he cares for her. However, when he sees Laurey in distress, he is able to drop his defenses and open up to her emotionally. Jud Fry Jud Fry is Laurey and Aunt Eller's surly hired hand and he has his eye on Laurey. He has a dark, possibly criminal past and his sullen, volatile nature frightens Laurey. He leads a solitary life of emotional isolation and, not being used to interacting with people, his social skills are limited. He feels a need to change his life but is uncertain of how to go about it. Although Jud is the putative villain of the story, there is an underlying emotional complexity that makes him, ultimately, sympathetic. Jud is a non-singing role. Will Parker Will Parker is a good-natured cowboy and champion steer roper. He's in love with Ado Annie and not afraid to express his feelings. He may not be the brightest guy around but his high-spirited energy and affectionate personality make him a good friend to everyone. There's no doubt that he'll be a good husband to Ado Annie. Gertle Cummings Gertle Cummings is a silly flirt from a nearby town with the most annoying laugh in the Territory. She's too full of herself to realize that that most people would rather not be in her company. Andrew Carnes Andrew Carnes is Ado Annie's protective father and he is determined that no man will take advantage of her innocent nature. He has never taken the dopey Will Parker seriously as a prospective son-in-law. When the Peddler tells Ado Annie that he wants to ride with her "to the end of the world," Carnes takes that as a proposal of marriage. He's also a good friend to Aunt Eller and if she ever needed help with anything, he'd be there in a shot. The Peddler The Peddler is a traveling salesman who's a bit of a shyster, his merchandise often being bogus. He fancies himself a ladies' man and when he gets too entangled with a girl, he simply moves on to the next town. So when he makes a pass at Ado Annie and her father takes it as a proposal of marriage, it looks like his days as a roving Casanova are over, much to his dismay. Essemble Large singing and dancing ensemble with numerous small roles: Ike Skidmore, a rancher Cord Elam, a rancher Fred, a rancher Slim, a rancher Mike, a farmer Joe, a cowboy Tom, a cowboy Vivian Ellen Kate Virginia
Into The Woods Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by James Lapine Music & Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim Originally Directed on Broadway by James Lapine Overview / Synopsis Into the Woods JR.* is the authorized young performer's edition of Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine's cock-eyed view of everyone's favorite fairytale characters in this hysterical take on the Brothers Grimm. Into the Woods JR. is an engaging and funny musical comedy that twists familiar fairy tales into a brand new story. When a Baker and his Wife learn they've been cursed with childlessness by the Witch next door, they embark on a quest for the special objects required to break the spell; swindling, deceiving and stealing from Cinderella, Little Red Riding Hood, Rapunzel and Jack (the one who climbed the beanstalk)! Equally at home in large or intimate spaces, Into the Woods Junior is a funny and engaging way to get young people to think about the stories with which they've grown up, and the ethical issues raised therein. The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this Stephen Sondheim score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Bring the world of theatre to your very own backyard with Into the Woods Junior. Audio Sampler - HL00147557 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00147593 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Director's Script Piano/Vocal Score Production Handbook Cross-Curricular Activities and Enrichment 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request * Into the Woods JR. does not have a chorus or chorus parts Individual Components 00147552 - Director's Guide $100.00 00147553 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00147554 - Actor's Script $10.00 00147555 - Actor's Script 10-Pak $75.00 00127835 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs $75.00 00146065 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00146066 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-Pak $100.00 00147556 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00146067 - Media Disc $10.00 00147557 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Scene 1 Opening - Part I [Narrator, Cinderella, Jack, Baker, Baker's Wife, Stepmother, Florinda, Lucinda] Opening - Part II [Baker, Baker's Wife, Little Red Ridinghood] Opening - Part III [Narrator, Jack, Jack's Mother] Opening - Part IV [Spoken] [Narrator, Baker, Baker's Wife, Witch] Opening - Part V [Spoken] [Baker, Baker's Wife, Witch] Opening - Part VI [Spoken] [Narrator, Witch] Opening - Part VII [Stepmother, Cinderella, Cinderella's Father] Opening - Part VIII [Baker's Wife, Baker, Cinderella] Opening - Part IX [Ensemble] Scene 2 Cinderella at the Grave [Cinderella, Cinderella's Mother] Hello, Little Girl [Wolf, Little Red Ridinghood] After "Hello, Little Girl" [Rapunzel, Baker's Wife] I Guess This is Goodbye/Maybe They're Magic [Jack, Baker, Baker's Wife] Rapunzel [Rapunzel] Baker's Reprise [Baker] I Know Things Now [Little Red Ridinghood] A Very Nice Prince [Baker's Wife, Cinderella] Scene 3 Giants in the Sky [Jack] Agony [Rapunzel's Prince, Cinderella's Prince] Rapunzel (Reprise) [Rapunzel] It Takes Two [Baker, Baker's Wife] Scene 4 Stay With Me [Witch] On the Steps of the Palace [Cinderella] Scene 5 Finale - Part II [Florinda, Stepmother] Finale - Part III [Steward] Finale - Part IV [Lucinda, Stepmother] Finale - Part VII [Narrator, Company] Curtain Music [Company] The Baker The Baker is an innocent but stubborn husband. This is a large role that has some challenging singing. The audience should never doubt he is a good-hearted person, trying to do what is right. The Baker's Wife The Baker's Wife is strong, determined and patient. The role requires excellent singing AND acting, plus a good sense of comic timing. Cinderella Cinderella is at once beautiful and surprisingly clumsy and awkward. Cinderella has very little dialogue. Cinderella's Family Cinderella's Stepmother, her stepsisters Florinda and Lucinda, and her Father are great comedic roles. Cinderella's Mother Cinderella's Mother is a one-scene wonder. The voice should be strong and pleasant. A collection of remembered mannerisms and sayings. Jack Jack has a lot of dialogue, and is responsible for singing two of the best-loved songs: "I Guess This Is Goodbye" and "Giants in the Sky." This is a role that could conceivably be played by a young woman, however, you will want to make sure she plays it as a boy and doesn't change the gender of the character. Jack's Mother Jack's Mother is described physically as "not quite pretty." She should be comfortable playing frazzled and frumpy. This is mainly an acting role and therefore requires an actress with an easily projected, authoritative speaking voice. Little Red Ridinghood Little Red Ridinghood is pushy, bratty, over-fed and spoiled. Her journey teaches her some very important lessons. A wonderfully fun role for the right girl. The Narrator / Mysterious Man The Narrator / Mysterious Man tells the story to the audience. While he doesn't sing much, he does have the most lines to memorize, being the largest role in the show. The Narrator is frequently cast as the Mysterious Man as well. Rapunzel Rapunzel must stand up to her mother and eventually leave her for the world. This role requires an excellent soprano voice. Rapunzel's Prince and Cinderella's Prince Rapunzel's Prince and Cinderella's Prince are pompous, conceited and self-absorbed brothers. They should be able to carry themselves with confidence. Both should be good singers. The Witch The Witch is the ultimate character role. Originally played by Bernadette Peters on Broadway, it requires a good singer/actor who can deliver the drama of the script. Mysterious and mischievous. FEATURED ENSEMBLE: The Wolf The Wolf should be properly slimy and a bit creepy. The Steward The Steward is a great role to gain experience. Granny Granny may be doubled by Cinderella's mother.   Milky White was played on Broadway by a prop, but you may choose to cast this non-singing role.
Once on this Island Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Cinderella KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book and Lyrics by Lynn Ahrens Music By Stephen Flaherty Based upon the Novel "My Love, My Love" by Rosa Guy Originally Directed and Choreographed on Broadway by Graciela Daniele Overview / Synopsis Once on This Island JR is the authorized young performer's edition of Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty's story of "two worlds, never meant to meet," where the power of love is proven to conquer the power of death - a lesson well told for generations to come. Once on This Island is an engaging, Caribbean-flavored musical set on an unnamed island in the French Antilles. The story of Ti Moune, a peasant girl who falls in love above her class, is told around a fire by a group of Caribbean peasants as they wait out a terrible storm. Once on This Island uses the tradition of storytelling to pass down history, values and insight from one generation to the next. The result is a lesson to be passed along for generations to come. With the gods looking over her, Ti Moune's journey of unrequited love comes to prove that the power of love is stronger than the power of death. Ti Moune's courage and spirit prove that love can withstand the storm, cross the Earth, and survive even in the face of death. With rhythms of the Caribbean Islands, this show will be a favorite of performers and audiences alike! The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Audio Sampler - HL00113121 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971751 $645.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971753 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971752 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971754 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971757 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971755 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971756 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971678 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971758 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971677 - Media Disc $10.00 00113121 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Prologue/We Dance [Storytellers] One Small Girl/Waiting for Life [Asaka, Erzulie, Papa Ge, Tonton, Mama, Ti Moune, Storytellers] And the Gods Heard Her Prayer/Rain [Asaka, Agwe, Erzulie, Papa Ge, Storytellers] Discovering Daniel/Pray [Storytellers, Ti Moune, Tonton, Mama, Gatekeeper, Peasants] Forever Yours [Ti Moune, Daniel, Papa Ge, Storytellers] Ti Moune [Ti Moune, Tonton, Mama] Mama Will Provide [Asaka, Storytellers] The Human Heart [Erzulie, Storytellers] Pray - Reprise/The Ball [Gossipers, Father, Storytellers, Andrea, Daniel] Ti Moune's Dance [Mama, Tonton, Little Ti Moune] Andrea Sequence [Andrea, Ti Moune] Promises/Forever Yours - Reprise [Papa Ge, Erzulie, Storytellers] Wedding Sequence [Storyteller (Asaka)] A Part of Us/Why We Tell the Story [Company] Bows/Exit Music [Orchestra] Little Girl/Little Ti Moune Little Girl/Little Ti Moune is the perfect role for a very young performer. This girl should be able to stay focused and listen. The role also requires some singing with the ensemble. Storytellers 1-4 Storytellers 1-4 are the four narrators that tell the story of Once on This Island Jr. They can be male or female. Not only do they sing the bulk of the show, but they also focus the audience's attention on important events throughout the production. These four roles are the true leads! Mama Euralie Mama Euralie is the symbolic mother of us all. She should possess a nice voice, and be a good actress. Be sure to audition Mama with Tonton as you will want to cast two people who perform well together, look like a couple and have stage chemistry. Tonton Julian Tonton Julian is the loving adopted father of Ti Moune. The actor who plays this role should have a nice voice, and be a good actor. It helps to cast a boy whose voice has changed, although not necessary. Ti Moune/Peasant Girl Ti Moune/Peasant Girl is the focus of our story and is featured in solo songs and dance. The actress performing this role should have an excellent voice and be an excellent dancer. The music Ti Moune sings is written in a pop style. Daniel Beauxhomme Daniel Beauxhomme is the male ingenue in Once on This Island Jr. Cast a young man who has a nice voice. Pair up potential Ti Mounes and Daniels at your final audition. Daniel's Son Daniel's Son is a very small walk-on part at the very end of the show. Cast a younger actor who resembles older Daniel. The actor need not sing and has no dialogue. The Gatekeeper The Gatekeeper has one scene. He should be impressive in size with a booming voice. Daniel's Father Daniel's Father is not sympathetic or understanding of his son's wishes, unlike Tonton Julian. This is a small role, requiring some singing and acting. Andrea Andrea is Daniel's beautiful fiancee. She is refined, educated and the exact opposite of Ti Moune. Papa Ge Papa Ge is the self-described "sly demon of death." The actor performing the role should have a nice voice and an evil laugh. Asaka Asaka is the Goddess of the Earth and sings one of the most popular and fun songs of the show, "Mama Will Provide." Cast an excellent singer who moves well and is capable of an earthy look. Agwe Agwe is the God of Water. He has a solo early in the show that requires an excellent voice ("Rain"). Cast an actor capable of singing the song. Erzulie Erzulie is the triumphant Goddess of Love. She should have a pretty voice that is compatible with a pop style of singing. Gossipers 1-7 Gossipers 1-7 are one-line features - a great place to cast performers who may not quite be ready for a larger role, but deserve a feature line or two. Choir of Storytellers Choir of Storytellers (who also play peasants, villagers, guests and grand hommes) is easily expandable to accommodate as many young people as necessary. Cast any young person with the desire to perform.