Loading...

Results: 206 Products
View
Results: 1 Song
Results: 12 Pages
Using Hal Leonard - Licensing Using Hal Leonard published songs in your virtual ensemble or performance video *In many cases Hal Leonard will not control virtual ensemble rights to the composition you wish to perform. Please read the below instructions in full to learn how to secure permission for your virtual performance. Although Hal Leonard creates sheet music for numerous publishers, we can only issue a synchronization (video recording), broadcast, and streaming video right for songs we own. Here's how you can determine if Hal Leonard can handle your request: Find at the copyright notice at the bottom of the first page of music. If the copyright notice includes a Hal Leonard owned publisher, we can handle your request. Hal Leonard owned publishers are: Curnow Music Press De Haske Publications Emersongs Hal Leonard - Milwin Music Corp. Jenson Publications King's Singers / KS Music MJQ Music Musicworks Rubank, Inc. If the copyright notice contains other publisher names, Hal Leonard likely cannot handle your request. Please contact the song’s copyright owner(s), as listed in the copyright notice, to secure the necessary permission. You may obtain contact information for song copyright owners from the following performance rights societies: ASCAP (www.ascap.com) BMI (www.bmi.com) SESAC (www.sesac.com) Global Music Rights (www.globalmusicrights.com) Additionally, while Shawnee Press, Inc. was purchased by Hal Leonard LLC, contractually Wise Music still retains these rights for compositions copyrighted prior to 2010. Please contact them at the following address for the appropriate permission: Wise Music (formerly Music Sales Corporation) 1247 6th Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Tel: 310-393-9900 Fax: 310-393-9925 https://www.wisemusic.com/ If you are a church with a CCLI or OneLicense agreement, please go to www.ccli.com/streaming or www.onelicense.net for more information about live-streaming your worship service.
Licensing FAQs Licensing FAQs WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERMISSION TO MAKE PHOTOCOPIES FOR CONTEST USE AND PERMISSION TO MAKE PERMANENT PHOTOCOPIES? We understand that a certain number of copies of a score or part may be needed for judges at a festival or contest in which you or your organization is participating. If a work is not available for purchase and you are in need of copies for the judges' reference only, then you should submit your request for permission to make photocopies for contest use. The number of copies you would need in such a case is generally quite small (usually six or less) and all copies are to be destroyed after contest use. If you are seeking permission to make legal photocopies for your organization's music library or if you are seeking permission to make a significant number of photocopies (9 or more) you should submit your request for permission to make permanent photocopies. WILL THERE BE A FEE? HOW MUCH WILL IT BE? There will likely be a fee associated with processing your permission request. We are not able to give estimates or ballpark figures on fees since there are a number of different variables we take into consideration when setting our fees. All fees will be quoted in writing, as it is our policy never to give verbal permission. DO YOU EVER GRANT GRATIS PERMISSION? We receive a number of requests from charitable or non-profit organizations. In an effort to be fair and equitable in our handling of all requests, it is our general policy not to grant gratis permission. WILL HAL LEONARD PUBLISH MY WORK? Hal Leonard does not accept or review unsolicited material for publication consideration. WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF A FEE IS QUOTED ON A "MOST FAVORED NATIONS BASIS"? If we quote a fee on a most favored nations basis, it means that we would be entitled to a higher fee than what we have quoted if you have agreed to pay another party a higher fee for a similar use. WHY MIGHT MY REQUEST BE DENIED? We take a number of factors into consideration when considering your request. Permission to use a copyrighted work is never guaranteed. Your request might be denied for the following reasons: If you wish to photocopy music still available for purchase. If you wish to create an arrangement similar to an arrangement we have available for purchase. If you wish to borrow specially licensed arrangements of songs from other schools, organizations or institutions. If the publishers or songwriters have objections for any reason or if we are unable to secure the necessary approvals before your deadline. WHO HANDLES PERMISSION REQUESTS FOR APPLAUSE THEATRE & CINEMA BOOKS? Licensing requests for Applause Theatre & Cinema Books are now handled by Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. Please direct your request to the following address for the appropriate permission: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Attn: Patricia Zline 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200 Lanham, MD 20706 Fax: (301) 429-5748 Email: pzline@rowman.com https://rowman.com/Page/RightsPermissions WHAT IF I WANT TO USE A G. SCHIRMER, INC. OR ASSOCIATED MUSIC PUBLISHERS SONG? Licensing requests for G. Schirmer and Associated Music Publishers are handled directly by Music Sales Corporation. All requests should be directed to the following address: G. Schirmer Inc./Associated Music Publishers c/o Music Sales Corporation 1247 6th Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Tel: 310-393-9900 Fax: 310-393-9925 www.musicsales.com/licensing HOW DO I OBTAIN PERMISSION TO PERFORM COPYRIGHTED COMPOSITIONS? With respect to non-dramatic public performances of copyrighted compositions, it is the venue in which you perform, such as the concert hall or night club, which must secure the necessary performance licensing. Non-dramatic musical performing rights are licensed by the following societies, on behalf of the copyright owners: ASCAP (American Society Of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) https://www.ascap.com, BMI (Broadcast Music Inc.) https://www.bmi.com, SESAC Inc. https://www.sesac.com and GMR (Global Music Rights) https://www.globalmusicrights.com/. Section 110 of the U.S. Copyright Act does allow the non-dramatic performance of musical works by schools or churches during the course of worship services or school functions, provided there is no purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage, no compensation is paid to the performers, promoters or organizers and no admission is charged for the performance. If admission is charged, all proceeds must be used only for educational or charitable purposes. The musical arrangements that Hal Leonard produces of songs that originated in film or Broadway shows may only be presented in a non-dramatic, concert setting and not in any way as dramatizations of the film or musical itself. If you desire to stage a performance of a dramatic nature (e.g., acting out a scene or scenes from a movie or musical) you must obtain the prior consent of the copyright owner. Any unauthorized dramatizations of a song will subject the user to penalties provided by copyright law. HOW CAN I TELL IF A WORK IS STILL PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT? In the United States, works created after January 1, 1978 will be protected for the life of the last living composer (author) plus 70 years. Copyrights existing prior to that date will continue for 95 years from the date copyright was originally secured. HOW CAN I IDENTIFY THE COPYRIGHT OWNER? The copyright owner of a work can be determined by looking at the copyright notice which is generally found at the bottom of the first page of music. If you are unable to determine the copyright owner by looking at the music, please check the searchable databases of the performance rights societies (ASCAP https://www.ascap.com, BMI https://www.bmi.com, SESAC, Inc. https://www.sesac.com or GMR https://www.globalmusicrights.com/). WHAT IF I NEED ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT COPYRIGHT LAW? Following are some links with helpful information about copyright law: U.S. Copyright Office Home Page - https://www.copyright.gov National Music Publishers' Association - http://nmpa.org Music Publishers' Association of the United States - https://www.mpa.org ASCAP (The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) - https://www.ascap.com BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.) - https://www.bmi.com SESAC, Inc. - https://www.sesac.com GMR (Global Music Rights) https://www.globalmusicrights.com/ Christian Copyright Licensing, Inc. - https://www.ccli.com
Disney's My Son Pinocchio Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Book by David Stern Overview / Synopsis My Son Pinocchio: Geppetto's Musical Tale is a light-hearted spin on the classic Pinocchio story. Once the Blue Fairy grants Geppetto his wish for a new son, the new father finds his parenting skills are a bit rough. With a book by David Stern, Academy Award®-winning composer Stephen Schwartz creates an original score expanded from Disney's Geppetto, the live-action TV movie starring Drew Carey, and paired with much loved songs from Disney's animated feature Pinocchio. Audio Sampler - HL00112989 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00113001 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00112980 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00112979 - Director's Script $100.00 00112981 - Actor's Script $10.00 00112982 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 00112984 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $50.00 00112987 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00112985 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00112986 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 00112988 - Media Disc $10.00 00112989 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample When You Wish Upon A Star (Part 1) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue, The Blue Fairy] When You Wish Upon A Star (Part 2) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue, The Blue Fairy] Toys [Geppetto, Town Children, Town Mothers, Town Fathers] Empty Heart [Geppetto] Rise and Shine (Part 1) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 1) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Geppetto and Son (Part 2) [Geppetto] Rise and Shine (Part 2) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 3) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Rise and Shine (Part 3) [Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Geppetto and Son (Part 4) [Geppetto] When You Wish Upon A Star (Reprise) [Pinocchio] Geppetto's Music Box [Geppetto] I've Got No Strings [Pinocchio, Marionettes] Bravo Stromboli [Stromboli, Marionettes] Just Because It's Magic [The Blue Fairy, Rosa, Viola, Arancia, Sue] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 1) [Talia, Maria, Professore Buonragazzo] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 2) [Boy 1] Satisfaction Guaranteed (Part 3) [Boy 2, Junior, Professore Buonragazzo, Company] Bravo Stromboli (Reprise) [Stomboli, Marionettes] Pleasure Island (Part 1) [Ringleader, Roustabouts] Pleasure Island (Part 2) [Ringleader] Geppetto and Son (Whale Reprise) [Geppetto, Pinocchio] Since I Gave My Heart Away (Part 1) [Geppetto,Fairies in Training] Since I Gave My Heart Away (Part 2) [Geppetto,The Blue Fairy, Company] Bows [Company] ANIMALS Animals (Pig, Foxes, Horse) serve as voices of reason for Geppetto's journey. Performers cast in these roles do not have to sing; however, comic timing and deadpan delivery are essential. These performers should be comfortable inhabiting the mismatched animals they portray. BERNARDO & MARIA Bernardo & Maria are married residents of Idyllia who are looking to purchase a "perfect" daughter from Professore Buonragazzo. These roles require group singing only. These performers can become part of the ensemble in other group numbers. THE BLUE FAIRY The Blue Fairy is convinced of her own perfection and does not like having it called into question. The performer you cast should have good comedic instincts and a solid singing voice. This role does not require excessive dancing. Range: G3 - E5 BOY 1 Boy 1 is one of three spokespeople for a group of traveling singers. They are larger than life as they spread joy throughout Rainbow Valley with their songs.Boy 1 is the first replacement for Pinocchio, created by Professore Buonragazzo's machine. Find an actor who can mimic a comedic version of the famous puppet. Range: C3 - C4 BOY 2 Boy 2 is the second replacement for Pinocchio. He should be even more wooden than Boy 1. Range: C3 - C4 CHILDREN OF IDYLLIA Children of Idyllia (Amelia, Salvatore, Carla, Lucia, Giuseppe, Boy 1, Boy 2) are the perfect children created by Professore Buonragazzo. Performers cast in these roles should be able to sing in groups, with featured speaking lines. There are great opportunities for movement and dance. DELINQUENTS Delinquents (Malvolio, Brutto, Sporco, others) can expand to include more performers and are great roles for non-singers. Also, they must be comfortable turning into donkeys. GEPPETTO Geppetto A Sharecropper who bids his time until he can go away to college. He has a quiet strength.Geppetto is a lonely toymaker who longs to be a father. Look for a mature performer who feels comfortable playing a parent to Pinocchio and isn't afraid of showing emotion. Cast a strong singer, as Geppetto has several solos. Range: Bb3 - F5 JUNIOR Junior is Professore Buonragazzo's mirrorimage assistant, created using the child-making machine. The performer in this role will need to work closely with the performer playing the Professor to mimic his movements. A short solo is required, but it can be spoken if necessary. Range: Bb3 - C#5 MARIONETTES Marionettes are the stringed puppets in Stromboli's show. There are solos available for marionettes, if you choose to separate their voices from Stromboli. Marionettes can be added as need to the ensemble. Range: Bb3 - E5 PINOCCHIO Pinocchio is a wooden puppet who doesn't know where he belongs. Look for a performer who can handle the lively personality of a little boy while also capturing tender moments. Although Pinocchio is a boy, the role can be played by a boy or girl. Pinocchio has a few solos, but a strong character actor can easily act through them. Range: G3 - E5 PROFESSORE BUONGRAZZO Professore Buongrazzo is a passionate, mad scientist obsessed with building perfect children. While some solos are required, character work is most important for this role. Range: Bb3 - C#4 THE RINGLEADER The Ringleader runs Pleasure Island. The performer playing this role should have a real sense of showmanship. This role requires some singing and is a great opportunity to showcase a dancer. The Ringleader can be played by a boy or a girl, but be sure to cast a performer who can commit to the character's mischievous ways. Range: A3 - E5 ROSA, VIOLA & ARANCIA Rosa, Viola & Arancia, fairies in training, are sweet and kind. The performers in these roles should be expressive observers since they often oversee the action occurring onstage during flashbacks. They sing as a group, often alongside the Blue Fairy. Their individual distinctions from one another can be discovered during rehearsal. ROUSTABOUTS Roustabouts are the sidekicks to Pleasure Island's Ringleader. When performing these roles, personality is key. Group singing is required. SIGNORA GIOVANNI Signora Giovaani is Pinocchio's teacher. The role can be a great opportunity to feature a performer who doesn't sing. If needed, this performer can become part of the ensemble in other group numbers. STROMBOLI Stromboli is a bumbling, loud, incompetent puppeteer who has at least a few screws loose. Cast a versatile performer who can create silly voices to take this character and his marionettes over-the-top. Stromboli's songs are challenging, so look for someone who is comfortable with his solos and doesn't shy away from silliness. Range: Bb3 - F5 SUE Sue is a fairy in training who marches to the beat of her own drum. She isn't your typical fairy, as sweetness isn't in her nature. The performer in this role can be brooding or brash, but certainly a contrast to Rosa, Viola and Arancia, although vocally she should blend in. TALIA Talia is the "perfect child" created for Maria and Bernardo by Professore Buonragazzo's machine. Talia sings and dances to impress her parents, so this is a great role to feature a dancer. Range: C3 - C4 THE TOWN CHILDREN The Town Children (Dante, Agata, Fiorello, Francesca, Adriana, Luigi, Gina, Lia, Rico) love the toys in Geppetto's shop. The performers cast in these roles should be able to create individual personalities for their characters. There are opportunities for solos, but performers can sing in groups. TOWN PARENTS Town Parents (Signora Lisi, Signore Fucito, Signora Mancini, Signor Alcamo, Signora Sommelia, Signora Contrastana, Signora Rosati, Signore Proto, Signore Marino) are the beleaguered mothers and judgmental fathers of the town children. The performers cast in these roles should be able to create individual personalities for their characters. There are opportunities for solos, but performers can sing in groups.
Rules - 2021 Hal Leonard Vocal Competition The 2021 HAL LEONARD VOCAL COMPETITION THE NORTH AMERICAN COMPETITION FOR SINGERS, SPONSORED BY THE WORLD LEADER IN VOCAL MUSIC $10,000 IN PRIZES FOR YOUNG SINGERS, CHILDREN THROUGH COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES Home Previous Winners Rules Art Song Musical Theatre 2021 will be the eleventh year of the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition, the innovative online competition for singers. This is the only vocal competition for all of North America aimed at young singers, ages 23 and under, and one of the first legitimate competitions for music students held entirely online on YouTube. In keeping with our founding values for the competition, there is no entry fee, making it accessible to any qualifying singer, from any location in North America (and U.S. territories), who records a video comprised of songs from the required repertoire, and then posts it on the internet in the prescribed manner by the deadline. This eliminates the commonly encountered expenses of travel to a designated destination on a specific date, as is the case in conventional music competitions. Cash prizes are awarded to first place winners in each category, and valuable gift certificates are awarded to those singers placing second and third. Gift certificates are also possible for those named Honorable Mention. All these prizes are in the spirit of supporting further music study among talented singers. We also very much value the sense of shared community that singers and teachers may find in watching video entries of others from all over North America. We give an inadequate salute to all the thousands of music teachers in North America. You inspire us by keeping our musical heritage alive, passing it on to one student at a time. Best of luck to all! We congratulate our past prize winners! Click on the year to see the video entries of past prize winners: View the Winning Videos from our Previous Years Choose a Previous Year 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 Official Rules Common Problems with Rules and Other Topics Judging OFFICIAL RULES In the spirit of fairness to all entries, these rules must be followed explicitly, without exception. It simply would not be fair to all other entrants if we allow an entry that does not follow all the rules. The rules and guidelines apply to both categories, Art Song and Musical Theatre. Official Entry Forms may be accessed at the end of the Required Repertoire for each age division within a category. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Video entries must be submitted by 1:59 am Central time on February 2, 2021. Any entries after that strict deadline will be disqualified. To be absolutely clear when your video is due, please consult the list of time zones below: Atlantic Time Zone: February 2, 3:59 am Eastern Time Zone: February 2, 2:59 am Central Time Zone: February 2, 1:59 am Mountain Time Zone: February 2, 12:59 am Pacific Time Zone: February 1, 11:59 pm Alaskan Time Zone: February 1, 10:59 pm Hawaiian Time Zone: February 1, 8:59 pm Designated winners may be asked to provide proof of age before the dispensation of prizes. Results will be announced to entrants via email and on www.halleonard.com/vocalcomp by May 1, 2021. We have added an optional field for teacher's email address to the official entry form; if the teacher's email address is entered, the teacher will also receive notification of results. An entrant may only win a first place cash prize once per age division within a category (art song or musical theatre). For instance, if you win first place in the Early Teen Voices Art Song category at age 14, you cannot enter again in that category the next year at age 15. Second Place, Third Place and Honorable Mentions are free to re-enter in the same age division. In the interest of fairness, employees of Hal Leonard, Hal Leonard published composers, editors, arrangers or authors, or members of their immediate families, or their students, are not allowed to enter the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition. You must follow the repertoire guidelines. Music competitions generally have required repertoire, and the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition is no different in this regard. The publications in the required repertoire list for each category and age division have been carefully considered, and generally offer a variety of material from which to choose. In fairness, we must insist that all entrants abide by these prescribed rules. Make certain that you have chosen songs from the required repertoire publications for your age division. It is not acceptable to sing repertoire from another age division, even a higher age division. Doing so will require us to disqualify your entry. You may sing a song traditionally sung by another gender provided the repertoire requirements for your age category are met. For the Children's Voices and Early Teens Voices categories only, we will allow transposition if the voice teacher feels this solves a vocal problem for the singer. If you wish to transpose a song, it is required that you seek permission for each song that you wish to transpose. Permissions must be sought via email to vocal@halleonard.com. Transpositions are allowed only to address vocal issues common to children and voices going through puberty. Transpositions will not be allowed for the high school and college categories. Two contrasting songs are required. Do not sing two slow songs or two fast songs or two songs of similar character. Choose songs that show a broad diversity of your abilities: range, expression, technique, musicality, etc. Accompanists are forbidden to use photocopies. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications in printed or ebook form. Entries with visible photocopies or visible loose pages of any kind will be automatically disqualified. Photocopying music is illegal. The purchase of a publication does not grant the right to photocopy for rehearsal or performance with a pianist. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this strict rule. We cannot make any exceptions. Pianists must play from original publications, whether this is their preference or not. There is no other choice for this competition. We urge the use of page turners as necessary. If the pianist is playing from a digital version of the music, you may be asked by the judging panel to provide a receipt or other proof of purchase. The performance recorded for the video entry must be acoustic and not amplified. The only microphone(s) involved should be for recording, and your voice must not be amplified. No mixing or sound enhancement is allowed through any kind of soundboard, including at a recording studio. No reverb can be added to the recording. The recording must be honest and acoustic. As closely as possible, it needs to be as if the judges were in the room listening to you perform live. You must sing live on the video. No audio dubbing over your video is allowed. Be aware that if your video entry sounds as if you have added reverb or enhanced the sound in any way, even if this is not the case, the judges will question and possibly disqualify your entry. If you are recording your video in a professional recording studio (which is completely unnecessary and possibly unwise for this competition), the sound engineer must not add reverb, sound enhancement or sound mixing in any way. Complete introductions, interludes, etc., must be performed. All repeats must be performed. If a singer is uncomfortable with a song which has a long introduction or interlude, choose a different song! Tasteful, stylistic ornamentation is allowed for Baroque selections in the art song category. Note any specific repertory requirements for each category. For musical theatre selections, a few interpretive liberties are allowed, but these should be deliberately chosen stylistic choices, not musical inaccuracies. The style of singing remains musical theatre, and should not venture into pop/rock/jazz improvisation. The taste and interpretive choices a singer makes will be part of what is judged. If the judges believe the singer has strayed too far away from the song as written, or from the way it is traditionally performed, it could impact the judging. Some teachers seem to think that if a singer does not sing exactly the notes and rhythms that are on the page, that the student audition should not be judged positively. It's up to the judges to decide what is acceptable within the style, and what is not. This applies to the piano accompaniment. Appropriate stylistic deviation is acceptable, however reharmonization and widely varying distractions will not be accepted. For the Art Song competition, in any age category, your video must be titled as follows: HL Art Song 2021 [Your Name] For instance: HL Art Song 2021 Mary Smith To be explicit: HL(one space)Art(one space)Song(one space)2021(one space)Mary(one space)Smith Note that HL is capitalized with no space between the H and L, and the first letter of Art and Song are capitalized. Also note that Art and Song are two separate words, with one space between them. For the Musical Theatre competition, in any age category, your video must be titled as follows: HL Theatre 2021 [Your Name] For instance: HL Theatre 2021 Mary Smith To be explicit: HL(one space)Theatre(one space)2021(one space)Mary(one space)Smith Note that HL is capitalized with no space between the H and L, and the first letter of theatre is capitalized. Note the spelling of Theatre (We have chosen Theatre as the spelling, not Theater, which is another acceptable spelling.) The judges will not spend time searching for your video if it is incorrectly labeled. In the official entry form, you will be providing the link with the web address of your video posting. Hal Leonard will also be copying your posting into the Hal Leonard Vocal Channel. Please double check the link provided. Make sure that your video is set to "public" or "unlisted" and not "private." The video must clearly show your face. A stationary camera position throughout, showing your face and most of your body, is perfectly acceptable, even preferable. Singers are required to sing their selections from memory. If a singer's performance is not memorized, the entry will be disqualified. You may sing with a live pianist in your video entry, or you may sing with official Hal Leonard recorded accompaniments which are packaged with or are companion to the required publications. When using the Hal Leonard recorded accompaniments, you may adjust the tempo as needed using any of several different softwares as long as the pitch does not change, unless as allowed for the Early Teens or Children's categories. Because of the special circumstances we are in, for the 2021 competition, we will allow a singer to use an accompaniment recording made that is not an official Hal Leonard recording, provided that the accompaniment recorded matches exactly the edition of the songs from books chosen on the required repertoire list. The accompaniment must be piano or keyboard only. Orchestrated accompaniments and MIDI generated backing tracks are not allowed. We will not accept unaccompanied entries. You may not accompany yourself. The video should be in the spirit of a recital or audition. It may be shot in a home, school, church, synagogue, recital hall, or some other appropriate location, with or without an audience. Please take into account the acoustics of the room. A small room with dead acoustics will not flatter a voice. We encourage you to dress appropriately, as you would for a recital or an audition. You are required to introduce yourself and your selections in the video, either verbally before your selection or with a title card before the songs. This is a simple introduction in the spirit of an audition. This introductory portion of the video entry must be limited to the following: FOR THE ART SONG COMPETITION Your name The composer and title of your selection (prior to each song) FOR THE MUSICAL THEATRE COMPETITION Your name The title of the song The show the song is from Do not say or write anything more in your video entry to the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition. Those departing from this stated direction may be disqualified. For the Art Song Competition, a typical model of spoken introduction before the first selection is: I am __________________. I will sing "The Silver Swan" by Orlando Gibbons (Or after your name you could simply state the selection without saying 'I will sing') Before the second selection, simply state the song title and the composer. For example: "Per la gloria d'adorarvi" by Giovanni Bononcini Take very special care to pronounce the title of your song and the composer's name correctly. For the Musical Theatre Competition, a typical model of spoken introduction before the first selection is: I am __________________. I will sing "Part of Your World" from The Little Mermaid. (Or after your name you could simply state the selection without saying 'I will sing') Before the second selection, simply introduce the song by stating the song title and the show the song is from: "Where Is Love" from Oliver! Video editing during a song is not allowed under any circumstances. This will be automatic grounds for disqualification. Each song should be filmed in one continuous take. The only editing allowed in the audition video is the insertion of an introduction, if necessary, and the editing together of two required songs. Do not change camera angles within the performance of a song. Each singer should submit both required songs within one video entry for a category. A singer is allowed to enter both the Art Song and Musical Theatre Competitions. There is no fee required for entry in the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition. We have attempted to thoroughly address all issues in these rules and guidelines. We repeat that, in fairness to all entrants, the official rules must be followed explicitly, without exception. The repertoire requirements must be strictly followed. If you write to us asking us to make an exception for you regarding required repertoire, or asking to submit a video entry to the competition after the stated deadline, we will simply write back stating that we must enforce the rules. We believe questions about topics beyond those covered should be very rare. If they arise, they may be directed to vocal@halleonard.com. COMMON PROBLEMS WITH RULES AND OTHER TOPICS THE USE OF VISIBLE PHOTOCOPIES IS PROHIBITED We have had to disqualify some video entries because of use of photocopies by accompanists, a clear violation of the rules. Most music competitions ban photocopies. Because we are, after all, a music publisher, we must take this rule very seriously. We have also added to this rule a ban of playing from any visible loose pages of music of any kind, whether they are photocopies or pages cut from a book, or any visible loose pages placed in any kind of binder, because the judges cannot tell that loose pages such as these are not photocopies. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this strict rule. Pianists must play from original publications, whether this is their preference or not. The purchase of a publication does not grant the right to photocopy for rehearsal or performance with a pianist. We urge the use of page turners as necessary. SONGS MUST BE FROM THE REQUIRED REPERTOIRE LIST Each year we are forced to disqualify a few entries because the singer sings songs that are not from the list of specified required repertoire publications for a category. This has particularly been a problem in the children's categories. Singers must sing songs from the publications listed in the required repertoire list for the category of entry. Music competitions generally have required repertoire, and the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition is no different in this regard. The publications in the required repertoire list for each category and age division have been carefully considered, and generally offer a wide array of material from which to choose. In fairness, we must insist that all entrants abide by these prescribed rules. Each year we receive inquiries that essentially ask, "May I sing a song from a book not on the required repertoire list?" Or, "I have this book not on your repertoire list. May I sing a song from this instead? The answer to these questions will always be no. In fairness to all entrants we must insist that the repertoire rules be followed. If you sing a song not from one of the publications in the required repertoire list, you will be disqualified. Also, many singer entries make mistakes in listing which publication a song is from. Please accurately list in your entry form the title of the book in which your song is published. ENTER THE APPROPRIATE AGE DIVISION AND CATEGORY Age is defined as the entering singer's age on the deadline of February 1, 2021. Make certain that you enter the correct age division of the competition. Each year we have entries in the wrong age division or wrong category, Art Song or Musical Theatre. THE DEADLINE FOR ENTRY MUST BE RESPECTED Video entries must be submitted by 1:59 am Central time on February 2, 2021. Any entries after that strict deadline will be disqualified. To be absolutely clear when your video is due please consult the list of time zones below: Atlantic Time Zone: February 2, 3:59 am Eastern Time Zone: February 2, 2:59 am Central Time Zone: February 2, 1:59 am Mountain Time Zone: February 2, 12:59 am Pacific Time Zone: February 1, 11:59 pm Alaskan Time Zone: February 1, 10:59 pm Hawaiian Time Zone: February 1, 8:59 pm TRANSPOSITIONS For High School and College/Young Adult age divisions, the video entries in the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition, songs must be sung in a published key that is in a publication on the required repertoire list for a category. Note that some of the publications on the required repertoire list come in more than one key (such as High Voice or Low Voice). As long as it is a published key from one of the publications on the required repertoire list, the entry is acceptable. For the Hal Leonard Vocal Competition we will not accept entries of transposed keys that are not in the required repertoire list of publications. We have decided to allow transpositions for the Children's Voices and Early Teen Voices categories, but you must follow the specific instructions stated in the Official Rules and Guidelines. VIDEO AND AUDIO QUALITY While we do not expect professional quality video and audio, after hearing thousands of video auditions for the competition, we have observed that those videos with notably poor video and audio quality make a less than good impression. On some entries the audio is so distorted that it is impossible to get a good impression of the singer's voice. We urge you to do the best you can. Take acoustics and the placement of microphones into account. Please test the recording set up before recording your video. A video audition sung in a small room with dead acoustics will generally make a less flattering vocal impression than a video audition recorded in a room with more sympathetic acoustics. When using a smartphone to make a recording, a better result can be achieved by holding the phone horizontally rather than vertically. YOUTUBE PUBLIC SETTING Each entry must be via video posted at www.youtube.com, with the link provided on the entry form. For information on posting videos we recommend exploring the Help section found on the YouTube homepage. Please note that you must select "Public" in the Privacy settings found under the broadcasting and Sharing Options section when uploading your video file to YouTube. AMPLIFICATION AND SOUND ENHANCEMENT There must be no amplification of the voice, no added reverb, or any sound enhancement added to the voice. Carefully read rules 15 and 16. Each year we have to disqualify singers who violate this rule. This must be an acoustic audition. If you choose to record in a recording studio (which is completely unnecessary), the sound engineer must not mix the sound, balance the voice and piano, multi-track record the voice and piano, add reverb, or alter in any way the acoustic sound of the voice. There should just be microphones for recording set up in the live room in the recording studio. Please do not make the mistake of overproducing this video audition regarding sound engineering. Also, a live performance with a microphone that is amplified through speakers is not allowed. JUDGING Art Song Judging will be by a qualified panel selected by Hal Leonard. Decisions made will be final. Criteria for judging will be most importantly voice quality and overall vocal talent. Additionally, judges will consider clarity of voice, diction, musicianship, musicality and expression, the singer's choice of repertoire, communication, presentation, and the performing personality of the singer. Musical Theatre We remind you that this is a singing competition. We urge performers to refrain from choreography in the musical video entries; however, we want lively, theatrical singing. Classical singers with good voices singing theatre repertoire need to sing in an appropriate theatre style, with persuasive acting and expression. Bland classical performances of theatre songs will not likely get a good judging result. Judging will be by a qualified panel selected by Hal Leonard. Decisions made will be final. Criteria for judging singing actors will be voice quality and overall vocal talent combined with theatrically persuasive ability to communicate. Additionally, judges will consider acting ability, clarity of voice, diction, musicianship, musicality, and expression, the singer's choice of repertoire, communication and presentation, and the performing personality of the singer. Competition Age Divisions with Required Repertoire See required repertoire details for each category and age division below. To find out more about any of the required repertoire publications listed, including viewing complete contents, enter the 8-digit publication number in the Search field at www.halleonard.com. Official 2021 Art Song Entry Form Children's Voices Ages 12 & Under Early Teen Voices Ages 13-15 High School Voices Ages 16-18 College/University Voices Ages 18-23 CHILDREN'S VOICES, AGE 12 AND UNDER - ART SONG Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $250 cash Second Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $50 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the Children's Voices category The purpose of having a children's art song category is to hear natural, lyrical singing with a "classical" approach, as opposed to a child's natural belting sound appropriate to musical theatre. To be explicit, we are not looking for the child's belting style of singing in this category. If that is the child's natural singing voice, please enter in the Musical Theatre category only. There is a limited amount of "classical" repertoire suitable to children. Two contrasting songs are required. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. You must sing repertoire as stated below. No substitutions of other repertoire is allowed. We inexplicably get questions every year from quite a few people asking if they can sing songs not on the required repertoire list. The answer will always be no. Please do not ask us for allowances or exceptions to the required repertoire list for this category. If you sing songs outside of the publications listed below on the required list, your entry will be disqualified. Note to teachers and parents: We have more disqualifications in the children's categories than any other category because repertoire rules are not followed. Fairness must prevail, and we cannot have a publicly declared winner with songs not on the required repertoire list. Be absolutely certain that the contestant is singing songs from the required repertoire only. Do not sing songs from a higher category. Art Songs for Children Book/Audio The Boy's Changing Voice (for a boy's voice in transition; not recommended for a boy's voice not yet in transition as the range will be too low) Hal Leonard Book/Audio Daffodils, Violets & Snowflakes compiled by Joan Frey Boytim High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 36 Solos for Young Singers compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; Hal Leonard Book/Audio DO NOT SING THE FOLLOWING from 36 Solos for Young Singers: Sit Down, Sister The Desperado Git Along, Little Dogies He's Got the Whole World in His Hand Macnamara's Band 36 More Solos for Young Singers compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; Hal Leonard Book/Audio DO NOT SING THE FOLLOWING from 36 More Solos for Young Singers: Ja-Da 25 Folksong Solos for Children Book/Audio EARLY TEEN VOICES, AGES 13-15 - ART SONG Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $500 cash Second Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $50 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the Early Teen Voices category Any two contrasting songs from the following publications. Your entry may be two songs in English, or one song in English and one song in Italian. Two songs in Italian are not allowed. The contrast between the songs should include differences in mood and tempo. Do not sing two fast songs, or two slow songs. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. You must sing repertoire as stated below. No substitutions of other repertoire is allowed. We inexplicably get questions every year from quite a few people asking if they can sing songs from publications not on the required repertoire list. The answer will always be no. Please do not ask us for allowances or exceptions to the required repertoire list for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. Do not sing songs from a higher category. A helpful comment: You will not necessarily do better in the judging by choosing a more difficult and challenging song if you cannot master it well. It is better to sing something you do well. American Art Songs for the Progressing Singer compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone/Bass The Boy's Changing Voice Hal Leonard Book/Audio Easy Songs for the Beginning Soprano Easy Songs for the Beginning Soprano - Part II compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard Part I, Book/Audio Part II, Book/Audio Easy Songs for the Beginning Mezzo-Soprano/Alto Easy Songs for the Beginning Mezzo-Soprano/Alto - Part II compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard Part I, Book/Audio Part II, Book/Audio Easy Songs for the Beginning Tenor Easy Songs for the Beginning Tenor - Part II compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonar Part I, Book/Audio Part II, Book/Audio Easy Songs for the Beginning Baritone/Bass Easy Songs for the Beginning Baritone/Bass - Part II compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard Part I, Book/Audio Part II, Book/Audio English Songs: Renaissance to Baroque edited by Steven Stolen and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard High Voice | Book/Audio Low Voice | Book/Audio 15 Easy Folksong Arrangements for the Progressing Singer edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 15 Easy Spiritual Arrangements for the Progessing Singer edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio Harry T. Burleigh: 25 Spirituals Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio Lovers, Lasses & Spring compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; Hal Leonard Book/Audio Roses, Laughter & Lullabies compiled by Joan Frey Boytim; Hal Leonard Book/Audio The Student Singer Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 28 Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries edited by Richard Walters; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice | Book/Audio Medium High Voice | Book/Audio Medium Voice | Book/Audio Medium Low Voice | Book/Audio Low Voice | Book/Audio NOTE: DO NOT SING TWO SONGS IN ITALIAN Young Ladies, Shipmates and Journeys Hal Leonard, Vocal Collection Tenor, Book/Audio Baritone/Bass, Book/Audio HIGH SCHOOL VOICES, AGES 16-18 - ART SONG Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada and attending a High School or its equivalent or studying with a teacher at the time of entry. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. See Rule 13. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $750 cash Second Place $200 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the High School Voices category Any two contrasting songs in two different languages from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in language, mood and tempo. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. Aaron Copland: Old American Songs Complete Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice | Book/Audio Medium Voice | Medium Voice Book/Audio Low Voice | Low Voice Book/Audio American Art Songs for the Progressing Singer G. Schirmer, Inc. Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone Anthology of Spanish Song edited by Maria DiPalma and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio The Art Song Anthology edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Benjamin Britten: Complete Folksong Arrangements Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice Benjamin Britten: 12 Selected Folksong Arrangements Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Book/Audio Medium/Low Voice Book/Audio Charles Ives: Twelve Easy Songs Peermusic Classical High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Classical Contest Solos Hal Leonard Soprano Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto Book/Audio Tenor Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Book/Audio The Developing Classical Singer Boosey & Hawkes Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone/Bass Dominick Argento: Six Elizabethan Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Book/Audio Medium/Low Voice Book/Audio English Songs: Renaissance to Baroque edited by Steven Stolen and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | Book/Audio Low Voice | Book/Audio Favorite French Art Songs (Volume 1 or 2) Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Vol. 1 Book/Audio High Voice Vol. 2 Book/Audio Low Voice Vol. 1 Book/Audio Low Voice Vol. 2 Book/Audio Favorite German Art Songs (Volume 1 or 2) Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Vol. 1 Book/Audio High Voice Vol. 2 Book/Audio Low Voice Vol. 1 Book/Audio Low Voice Vol. 2 Book/Audio Favorite Spanish Art Songs Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio 15 American Art Songs G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 15 More American Art Songs G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 15 Art Songs by American Composers Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 15 Art Songs by British Composers Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 15 Recital Songs in English Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio The First Book of Soprano Solos Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Soprano Solos Part II Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Soprano Solos Part III Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Mezzo-Soprano/Alto Solos Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Mezzo-Soprano/Alto Solos Part II Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Mezzo-Soprano/Alto Solos Part III Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Tenor Solos Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Tenor Solos Part II Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Tenor Solos Part III Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Baritone/Bass Solos Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Baritone/Bass Solos Part II Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. The First Book of Baritone/Bass Solos Part III Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Book Book/Audio Note: Any opera, operetta or oratorio arias in The First Book of Solos books are not eligible repertory. Franz Schubert: 15 Selected Songs edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio The French Song Anthology edited by Carol Kimball and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs Pronunciation Guide Book/Audio High Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Low Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Gabriel Fauré: 15 Selected Songs edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Harry T. Burleigh: 25 Spirituals Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Henry Purcell: 12 Selected Songs realizations by Benjamin Britten Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Book/Audio Medium/Low Voice Book/Audio Introduction to Art Song Compiled by Joan Boytim/G. Schirmer Soprano, Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto, Book/Audio Tenor, Book/Audio Baritone/Bass, Book/Audio Johannes Brahms: 15 Selected Songs edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Leonard Bernstein: I Hate Music! Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Medium/Low Voice The Lieder Anthology edited by Virginia Saya and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs Pronunciation Guide Book/Audio High Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Low Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Ned Rorem: 10 Selected Songs Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Ralph Vaughan Williams: Songs of Travel edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Roger Quilter: Collected Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Low Voice Roger Quilter: 55 Songs edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Low Voice Samuel Barber: 65 Songs G. Schirmer High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Samuel Barber: 10 Selected Songs G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Songs of John Jacob Niles G. Schirmer, Inc. High Voice Low Voice Standard Vocal Literature edited by Richard Walters/The Vocal Library Soprano, Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano, Book/Audio Tenor, Book/Audio Baritone, Book/Audio Bass, Book/Audio Note: Opera, oratorio or operetta arias from Standard Vocal Literature are not allowed. Art Songs only. 28 American Art Songs G. Schirmer High Voice, Book/Audio Low Voice, Book/Audio 28 Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries edited by Richard Walters; G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice | Book/Audio Medium High Voice | Book/Audio Medium Voice | Book/Audio Medium Low Voice | Book/Audio Low Voice | Book/Audio COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY ADULT VOICES (UNDERGRADUATES), AGES 18-23 - ART SONG Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada and enrolled as an undergraduate at a college, university or conservatory or studying with a private teacher at time of entry. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $1000 cash Second Place $200 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $50.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the College/University Voices category Choose any two contrasting songs in two different languages only from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in language, mood and tempo. We advise you to choose songs that show your vocal and expressive capabilities, revealing a true feeling for art song and some degree of sophistication as a recitalist. The judges like to hear singers explore art song repertoire beyond the most famous and often sung songs. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. Aaron Copland: Art Songs and Arias (art songs only) Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice Aaron Copland: Old American Songs Complete Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice | High Voice Book/Audio Medium Voice | Medium Voice Book/Audio Low Voice | Low Voice Book/Audio Alexander Borodin: Collection of Romances Forberg Musikverlag High Voice Medium/Low Voice Anthology of Spanish Song edited by Maria DiPalma and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio The Art Song Anthology edited by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Art Song in English Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Low Voice Benjamin Britten: Collected Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice Benjamin Britten: Complete Folksong Arrangements Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice Charles Ives: 114 Songs Peermusic Classical Book Dominick Argento: Collected Song Cycles Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium Voice Dominick Argento: Six Elizabethan Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium Voice Erik Satie: 22 Songs Salabert High Voice Medium-Low Voice Folksongs in Recital concert arrangements by Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Book/Audio Low Voice Book/Audio Franz Schubert: 100 Songs edited by Steven Stolen and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Low Voice The French Song Anthology edited by Carol Kimball and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs Pronunciation Guide Book/Audio High Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Low Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Gabriel Fauré: 50 Songs edited by Laura Ward and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Medium/Low Voice Gerald Finzi: Collected Songs Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Medium/Low Voice Gioachino Rossini: Arie de Camera High/Medium High Voice G. Schirmer Collection of American Art Song G. Schirmer/Hal Leonard High Voice Medium/Low Voice Italian Art Songs Ricordi High Voice Medium Voice Italian Art Songs of the 20th Century Ricordi High Voice Medium Voice Jake Heggie: The Faces of Love Complete Associated Music Publishers Book Johannes Brahms: 75 Songs edited by Richard Walters, Laura Ward and Elaine Schmidt; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Low Voice John Musto: Collected Songs Peermusic Classical High Voice Vol. 1 High Voice Vol. 2 High Voice Vol. 3 High Voice Vol. 4 High Voice Vol. 5 High Voice Vol. 6 Medium Voice Vol. 1 Medium Voice Vol. 2 Medium Voice Vol. 3 Medium Voice Vol. 4 Medium Voice Vol. 5 Medium Voice Vol. 6 Joseph Marx: 30 Songs Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice/Medium Voice Leonard Bernstein: Art Songs and Arias (art songs only) Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice The Lieder Anthology edited by Virginia Saya and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice | High Voice Accompaniment CDs Low Voice | Low Voice Accompaniment CDs Pronunciation Guide Book/Audio High Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Low Voice Complete Package (with Accomp CDs and Pronunciation Guide CDs) Maurice Ravel: 46 Melodies Editions Durand High Voice Medium/Low Voice Ned Rorem: 50 Collected Songs Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Medium/Low Voice The Opera America SongBook (46 Art Songs) Schott Book Poulenc: 50 Mélodies High Voice Medium/Low Voice The Purcell Collection: Realizations by Benjamin Britten Boosey & Hawkes/Hal Leonard High Voice Medium/Low Voice (Note: Selections from Dido and Aeneas are not acceptable because they are opera arias and not art songs.) Richard Strauss: 57 Lieder Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Richard Strauss: 52 Lieder Boosey & Hawkes Medium/Low Voice Richard Strauss: 40 Songs edited by Laura Ward and Richard Walters; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Medium/Low Voice Roger Quilter: Collected Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Low Voice Roger Quilter: 55 Songs Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Low Voice Samuel Barber: 65 Songs edited by Richard Walters; G. Schirmer High Voice Medium/Low Voice Songs of Claude Debussy edited by James Briscoe; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Medium Voice The Songs of John Jacob Niles G. Schirmer High Voice Low Voice 20th Century French Art Song Compiled and Edited by Carol Kimball/Editions Durand High Voice Medium/Low Voice Vincenzo Bellini: 15 Composizioni da Camera Ricordi High Voice Low Voice William Bolcom: Concert Songs Volume 1 1975-2000 Edward B. Marks Music High Voice Medium/Low Voice William Bolcom: Concert Songs Volume 2 2001-2012 Edward B. Marks Music High Voice Medium/Low Voice Women Composers edited by Carol Kimball; Hal Leonard, The Vocal Library High Voice Low Voice Official 2021 Art Song Entry Form Competition Age Divisions with Required Repertoire See required repertoire details for each category and age division below. To find out more about any of the required repertoire publications listed, including viewing complete contents, enter the 8-digit publication number in the Search field at www.halleonard.com. Official 2021 Musical Theatre Entry Form Children's Voices Ages 12 & Under Early Teen Voices Ages 13-15 High School Voices Ages 16-18 Young Adult Voices Ages 18-23 CHILDREN'S VOICES, AGE 12 AND UNDER - MUSICAL THEATRE Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $250 cash Second Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $50 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the Children's Voices category Any two contrasting songs from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in mood and tempo. Do not sing two fast songs or two slow songs. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. You must sing repertoire as stated below. No substitutions of other repertoire is allowed. There are plenty of choices of songs in the publications listed below. We inexplicably get questions every year from quite a few people asking if they can sing songs not on the required repertoire list. The answer will always be no. Please do not ask us for allowances or exceptions to the required repertoire list for this category. If you sing songs outside of the publications listed below on the required list, your entry will be disqualified. Note to Teachers and Parents: We have more disqualifications in the children's categories than any other category because repertoire rules are not followed. Fairness must prevail, and we cannot have a publicly declared winner with songs not on the required repertoire list. Be absolutely certain that the contestant is singing songs from the required repertoire publications only. Boys' Songs from Musicals Hal Leonard Book/Audio Broadway Presents! Kids' Musical Theatre Anthology Alfred, distributed by Hal Leonard Book/Audio Broadway Songs 4 Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio Disney Collected Kids' Solos Hal Leonard Book/Audio Disney Solos for Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio Girls' Songs from Musicals Hal Leonard Book/Audio Girls' Songs from 21st Century Musicals Hal Leonard Book/Audio Kids' Broadway SongBook Hal Leonard Book/Audio Book Only Accompaniment CD The Kid's Musical Theatre Audition Hal Leonard Girl's Edition Book/Audio Boy's Edition Book/Audio Kids' Musical Theatre Collection Volume 1 Hal Leonard Book/Audio Kids' Musical Theatre Collection Volume 2 Hal Leonard Book/Audio Kids' Musical Theatre Collection Volumes 1 and 2 Combined Hal Leonard Book Kids' Songs from Contemporary Musicals Hal Leonard Book/Audio Kids' Stage & Screen Songs Hal Leonard Book/Audio Kid's Vocal Solo Collection Hal Leonard Book/Audio More Disney Solos for Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio Rodgers & Hammerstein Solos for Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio The Singer's Musical Theatre Anthology - Children's Edition Hal Leonard Book Only Book/Audio Solos from Musicals for Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio Still More Disney Solos for Kids Hal Leonard Book/Audio EARLY TEEN VOICES, AGES 13-15 - MUSICAL THEATRE Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $500 cash Second Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $50 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one Book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the Early Teen Voices category Any two contrasting songs from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in mood and tempo. Do not sing two fast songs, or two slow songs. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. Belter's Book of Comedy Songs - Third Edition Book Broadway for Teens Hal Leonard Young Women's Edition Book/Audio Young Men's Edition Book/Audio The Broadway Ingénue Hal Leonard Book Book/Audio Broadway Presents! Teens' Musical Theatre Anthology Alfred, distributed by Hal Leonard Female Edition Male Edition Character Songs from Musical Theatre Women's Edition Men's Edition Disney For Teen Singers Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition Disney Ingenue Songbook Book Disney Songs for Singers High Voice Low Voice The First Book of Broadway Solos Hal Leonard Soprano | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano | Book/Audio Tenor | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass | Book/Audio The First Book of Broadway Solos Part II Hal Leonard Soprano Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano Book/Audio Tenor Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Book/Audio The Giant Book of Songs for Teens from Musicals Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition Great Songs from Musicals for Teens Hal Leonard Young Women's Edition- Book/Audio Young Men's Edition- Book/Audio Musical Theatre Anthology for Teens Hal Leonard Young Women's Edition | Book/Audio Young Men's Edition | Book/Audio The Singer's Anthology of Gershwin Songs Soprano Mezzo-Soprano/Belter Tenor Baritone NOTE: Do not sing the operatic selections from Porgy and Bess The Singer's Musical Theatre Anthology Teen's Edition edited by Richard Walters Soprano | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Belter | Book/Audio Tenor | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass | Book/Audio Songs from 21st Century Musicals for Teens Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition The Songs of Rodgers & Hammerstein Hal Leonard Soprano Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Belter Book/Audio Tenor Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Book/Audio Teen Broadway Songs of the 2010s Young Women's Edition, Book/Audio Young Men's Edition, Book/Audio Teen Pop Broadway Collection Cherry Lane, distributed by Hal Leonard Book Teen Theatre Songs Young Women's Edition, Book/Audio Young Men's Edition, Book/Audio The Teen's Musical Theatre Collection Hal Leonard Young Women's Edition | Book/Audio Young Men's Edition | Book/Audio Theatre and Cabaret Comedy Songs Women's Edition Men's Edition Tunes for Teens from Musicals Hal Leonard Young Women's Edition - Book/Audio Young Men's Edition- Book/Audio HIGH SCHOOL VOICES, AGES 16-18 - MUSICAL THEATRE Repertoire Requirements and Prizes For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada and attending a High School or its equivalent or studying with a teacher at the time of entry. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $750 cash Second Place $200 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one book with a retail value of up to $30.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the High School Voices category Any two contrasting songs from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in mood and tempo. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. The Actor's SongBook Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition Andrew Lloyd Webber for Singers Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition Andrew Lloyd Webber Theatre Songs Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition Belter's Book of Comedy Songs Hal Leonard Book Broadway Belter's SongBook Hal Leonard Book The Broadway Ingénue Hal Leonard Soprano | Book/Audio Broadway Presents! Teens' Musical Theatre Anthology Alfred, distributed by Hal Leonard Female Edition Male Edition Comedy Songs for Women Book/Audio Contemporary Musical Theatre for Teens Young Women's Edition Volume 1 Young Women's Edition Volume 2 Young Men's Edition Volume 1 Young Men's Edition Volume 2 The Contemporary Singing Actor Hal Leonard Women's Edition Volume 1 Women's Edition Volume 2 Men's Edition Volume 1 Men's Edition Volume 2 Contemporary Theatre Songs Soprano Belter/Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone Dear Evan Hansen Vocal Selections Book Disney For Singers High Voice Low Voice Disney For Teen Singers Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition The Giant Book of Songs for Teens from Musicals Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition Jason Robert Brown Plays Jason Robert Brown Hal Leonard Women's Edition Book/Audio Men's Edition Book/Audio Musical Theatre Songs of the 2010s Women's Edition Book/Audio (Not Yet Published) Men's Edition Book/Audio The Singer's Musical Theatre Anthology - Teen's Edition Hal Leonard Soprano | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter | Book/Audio Tenor | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass | Book/Audio The Singer's Musical Theatre Anthology - Volumes 1-7 Hal Leonard Soprano Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Sondheim for Singers Hal Leonard Soprano Belter/Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone/Bass Songs from 21st Century Movie Musicals for Women Singers Hal Leonard Book/Audio Songs from 21st Century Musicals for Teens Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition The Songs of Rodgers & Hammerstein Hal Leonard Soprano Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Belter Book/Audio Tenor Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Book/Audio Teen Broadway Songs of the 2010s Young Women's Edition, Book/Audio Young Men's Edition, Book/Audio Teen Pop Broadway Collection Cherry Lane, distributed by Hal Leonard Book Teen Theatre Songs Young Women's Edition, Book/Audio Young Men's Edition, Book/Audio Theatre and Cabaret Comedy Songs Young Women's Edition Young Men's Edition 21st Century Musical Theatre Women's Edition Men's Edition YOUNG ADULT VOICES, AGES 18-23 - MUSICAL THEATRE Repertoire Requirements and Prizes Note: For this category, it is not necessary for a contestant to be enrolled in a school for entry. Working or aspiring young professionals may enter. For the purposes of this competition, age is defined as the age of the entrant on the deadline date of February 1, 2021. Entrants must be legal residents of the United States and its territories, or legal residents of Canada. Entries which include songs which are not from the publications listed in the repertoire requirements for this age group and category below will be disqualified. Photocopies are illegal, and are not allowed. Pianists accompanying singers must play from original publications, not loose pages of any kind or loose pages in a binder. (A page turner may be needed.) Entries with visible photocopies or loose pages, or loose pages in a binder will be automatically disqualified. Singers are responsible for the accompanist's compliance with this rule. Please be aware of contrast. Do not sing two slow songs, or two fast songs, or two songs of similar character. First Place $1000 cash Second Place $200 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Third Place $100 gift certificate for music publications of the designee's choice available from Hal Leonard Further gift certificates for Honorable Mentions are possible for one book with a retail value of up to $50.00. At the judges' discretion, further entries may be cited as Finalists and or Semi-Finalist for a category. It is entirely up to the judges when judging a specific category as to whether Finalists and Semi-Finalists will be cited. These distinctions are not necessarily cited for all categories. The Finalists are those who achieved a level of consideration in the round of judging which determined the place winners and Honorable Mentions. Semi-Finalists are those who were cited as meriting further consideration after the first round of judging. There are no prizes for these distinctions of Finalist and Semi-Finalist. Required repertoire for the College/University and Young Adult Voices category: Any two contrasting songs from the following publications. The contrast between the songs should include differences in mood and tempo. Only editions of songs from these designated publications are allowed for entry. No other repertoire is acceptable for this category. Entries with songs not from one of the publications below will be disqualified. The Actor's SongBook Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition The Ahrens & Flaherty Songbook Book The Almost Unknown Stephen Sondheim Book The Andrew Lippa Songbook Book Andrew Lloyd Webber Theatre Songs Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition The Band's Visit - Vocal Selections Book Belter's Book of Comedy Songs Book Bernstein for Singers Boosey & Hawkes Soprano Belter/Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone Bernstein Theatre Songs Boosey & Hawkes High Voice Medium/Low Voice Comedy Songs for Women Book/Audio Contemporary Broadway Audition Women's Edition - Book/Online Audio Men's Edition - Book/Online Audio NOTE: Sing the FULL versions of these songs ONLY; the 16-bar excerpt is not permitted for this competition. The Contemporary Singing Actor Hal Leonard Women's Edition Volume 1 Women's Edition Volume 2 Men's Edition Volume 1 Men's Edition Volume 2 Contemporary Theatre Songs Soprano Belter/Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone Grateful: The Songs of John Bucchino Book The Jason Robert Brown Collection Book Jason Robert Brown Plays Jason Robert Brown Hal Leonard Women's Edition Book/Audio Men's Edition Book/Audio The Kerrigan-Lowdermilk Songbook Book La La Land Vocal Selections Book Michael John LaChiusa Songbook Book Music + Lyrics by Ryan Scott Oliver Book Musical Theatre Songs of the 2010s Women's Edition Book/Audio (Not Yet Published) Men's Edition Book/Audio The Singer's Anthology of Gershwin Songs Soprano Mezzo-Soprano/Belter Tenor Baritone NOTE: Do not sing the operatic selections from Porgy and Bess The Singer's Musical Theatre Anthology - Volumes 1-7 Hal Leonard Soprano Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Soprano Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Mezzo-Soprano/Alto/Belter Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Tenor Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 1 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 2 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 3 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 4 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 5 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 6 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Baritone/Bass Volume 7 | Book Only | Accompaniment CDs | Book/Audio Sondheim for Singers Hal Leonard Soprano Belter/Mezzo-Soprano Tenor Baritone/Bass The Songs of Goldrich and Heisler Book Teen Broadway Songs of the 2010s Young Women's Edition, Book/Audio Young Men's Edition, Book/Audio Theatre and Cabaret Comedy Songs Women's Edition Men's Edition 21st Century Musical Theatre Hal Leonard Women's Edition Men's Edition The William Finn Songbook Book Official 2021 Musical Theatre Entry Form
Magic Tree House: Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Jenny Laird Music and Lyrics by Randy Courts Additional Lyrics by Will Osborne Based on Magic Tree House #1: Dinosaurs Before Dark by Mary Pope Osborne Overview / Synopsis A magical tree house transports Jack and Annie to the land of the dinosaurs in this adaptation of the best-selling book series. (30-MINUTE VERSION FOR YOUNG PERFORMERS) What would you do if a tree house in your neighborhood could transport you anywhere you wanted to go? While exploring one afternoon, siblings Jack and Annie discover a tree house full of books. Jack looks through a book about dinosaurs and wishes he could see a real one. Suddenly the wind begins to blow and the tree house starts to spin wildly. When it finally stops, Jack and Annie open their eyes to find they have been transported back to the time of the dinosaurs. Join Jack and Annie on their adventure back in time to experience an amazing group of dinosaurs face to face. MAGIC TREE HOUSE: DINOSAURS BEFORE DARK KIDS is an adaptation of the first of Mary Pope Osborne's award-winning fantasy adventure books from the Magic Tree House book series. The books are number one New York Times' bestsellers - more than 100 million copies have been sold in North America alone. The series has been translated into many languages and is available in more than 100 countries around the world. It's story time in the forest, and all the young Saplings, along with Stump, a grumpy old tree stump, have gathered to hear Otto, the oak tell his latest tale. Today, Otto's story begins in Frog Creek, Pennsylvania, where a brother and sister named Jack and Annie find a mysterious tree house and discover that it is filled with a magnificent collection of books (How Far Can You See?). As Jack is looking at a picture in a book about dinosaurs, he idly wishes they could go there - and, magically, the wind begins to blow and the tree house begins to spin (Taking the Tree House for a Spin). Terrified, Jack and Annie cover their heads and cling to each other. The spinning stops. Jack and Annie look out the tree house window to discover that they have arrived in a land that looks exactly like the picture Jack was looking at in the dinosaur book. Annie spots Henry, a Pteranodon. Before Jack can stop her, Annie scrambles down the tree house rope ladder to meet the strange creature. Jack warns her about the dangers of making friends too hastily (Friend or Foe). Terri, Larry, and Gary, three Triceratops, enter the clearing. As curious about the two strange human creatures as Jack and Annie are about them, the Triceratops join in the song, with everyone finally agreeing that they can be friends. As Jack is making notes about his experience, he spots a gold medallion with the letter "M" on the ground. Before he can consider the mystery of how the medallion came to be in dinosaur times, Annie calls out that she's found something wonderful - a nest full of dinosaur eggs! Annie takes a flower from the nest and suddenly, with a huge roar, Natty the Anatosaurus rushes in to protect her nest! Annie freezes as Natty is joined by two more Anatosaurus, Susan and Joan. While Jack tries to figure out what to do, the three Anatosaurus mothers commiserate about the challenges of dinosaur motherhood (A Mother's Work is Never Done). During the song, Annie slowly crawls back to Jack and they watch from a safe distance - until Annie decides to make friends with Natty. To Jack's surprise, Natty is receptive to Annie's friendly approach, and Jack and Annie are amazed that they are having an adventure with real live dinosaurs (When We Woke). The eggs begin to hatch, and as the Baby Dinosaurs emerge they marvel at the wonders of the world into which they are being born (Wonder). Annie and Jack go to find food for the babies and discover a watering hole - the only place where plant eaters and meat eaters gather together. They watch as a variety of dinosaurs gather at the watering hole (March of the Dinosaurs). The peaceful scene at the watering hole is interrupted by the terrifying arrival of a Tyrannosaurus Rex (Roar). The Triceratops distract the T-Rex while Jack and Annie run back to the tree house but when they get there, Jack realizes he has forgotten his backpack and has to go back to get it. Jack races back and retrieves his backpack, but before he can get back to the tree house, the T-Rex spots him! Jack hides in some ferns and distracts the T-Rex by throwing a rock into another part of the clearing. Jack is about to make a run for the tree house when Henry arrives with Annie on his back. Henry rescues Jack, and Jack and Annie are thrilled to find themselves flying on the back of a Pteranodon (When We Woke - Reprise). Henry delivers Jack and Annie to the tree house, and they share a sad goodbye. Jack tells Annie the reason he had to go back for his backpack: he's figured out that the tree house magic works by pointing to a picture in a book and wishing to go there and he needed a picture of Frog Creek from his backpack to wish them home. He makes the wish and they return to the woods where the story began. The Saplings, Stump, Jack and Annie are all excited to see where the tree house will travel next (How Far Can You See? - Epilogue). Audio Sampler - HL00121237 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00121238 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 2 Accompaniment & Guide Vocal CDs Choreography DVD Director's Guide 30 Family Matters Booklets Media Disk Piano/Vocal Score 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 00121239 - Director's Guide $100.00 00121241 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00121230 - Actor's Script $10.00 00121231 - Actor's Script 10-Pak $75.00 00121232 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00121233 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00121234 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-Pak $100.00 00121235 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00121236 - Media Disc $10.00 00121237 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample How Far Can You See? Taking The Tree House For A Spin Friend or Foe (Part 1) Friend or Foe (Part 2) A Mother's Work Is Never Done When We Woke Wonder March Of The Dinosaurs (Part 1) March of The Dinosaurs (Part 2) Roar What? The Backpack Think, Jack, Think When We Woke (Reprise) Spinning Again How Far Can You See? (Epilogue) Ankylosaurus Ankylosaurus: four-ton dinosaurs with spikes on their backs. Annie Annie: Jack's younger sister and, in many ways, his opposite in terms of personality. She is a risk-taker who often follows her heart instead of her head. She sometimes teases Jack about his careful attitude toward life and often encourages him to be more adventurous. She loves animals of any kind and has a very loving heart. Range: A3-D5 Baby Dinosaurs Baby Dinosaurs: Freshly hatched Anatosaurus dinosaurs who are filled with wonder upon encountering the world for the first time. Gary Gary: The boldest, hippest and friendliest of the Triceratops. He is the first to step out of the ferns to get a better look at Annie and Jack. He is as impulsive, curious and guileless as Annie. Range: A3-D5 Henry Henry: A pteranodon that Jack and Annie encounter upon first arriving. Annie names him Henry and believes he is magic. Iguanodons Iguanodons: The cool kids of the dinosaur lot. They have spikes for thumbs and are not afraid to brag about it. Jack Jack: He is bookish, careful and thoughtful, but he is NOT a nerd! Jack has tremendous curiosity about the world around him and loves to take notes about his observations. Jack tends to be very cautious in new situations, and his adventures in the tree house help him develop his confidence. He has a good (and protective) relationship with his younger sister, Annie, though her more impetuous nature often gets on his nerves. Range: A3-D5 Joan Joan: The most stressed out of all the Anatosaurus Mothers. Range: A3-C5 Larry Larry: The nerdiest of the Triceratops and is a little henpecked by Terri, but he isn't afraid to speak his mind. Range: A3-D5 Natty Natty: The ultimate mother hen and takes great pride in protecting the baby Anatosaurus eggs. Range: A3-C5 Otto Otto: The oldest oak tree in the forest, a mild-mannered grandfatherly or grandmotherly type and a natural storyteller. Range: C4-E5 Panoplosaurus Panoplosaurus: Tank-like dinosaurs who take a lot of pride in all of their unique characteristics. Protoceratops Protoceratops: The "runts" of the dinosaur litter Red Pines/ Hemlocks Red Pines/ Hemlocks: Groups of trees who narrate the story for the opening and closing of the show. Saplings Saplings: Young, spirited and curious Trees, eager to hear about the mysterious tree house that appears in their Woods. Stump Stump: A grumpy tree stump, who, in direct contrast to Otto, is impatient and ill-tempered. Range: C4-E5 Susan Susan: A sassy Anatosaurus Mom who is more intrigued by Jack and Annie's presence than afraid of them. Range: A3-C5 Terri Terri: The most domineering of the Triceratops, but her bossy comments toward Larry should serve as comic relief and not be perceived as bullying. Range: A3-F5 Toto Toto: Susan's pestering child. She (or he) is as sassy as her mother and a bit of an imp. Range: D4-A4 T-Rex T-Rex: A fierce, meat-eating dinosaur that Jack and Annie encounter right before getting back to the tree house. Troodon Troodon: The "brains" of the dinosaur lot but are not braggarts.
Magic Tree House: Pirates Past Noon KIDS - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Jenny Laird and Will Osborne Lyrics by Randy Courts and Will Osborne Music by Randy Courts Based on Magic Tree House #4: Pirates Past Noon by Mary Pope Osborne Overview / Synopsis Magic Tree House: Pirates Past Noon KIDS is an adaptation of the fourth of Mary Pope Osborne's award-winning fantasy adventure books from the Magic Tree House book series, which has sold more than 100 million copies and is available in more than a hundred countries around the world. This time around, Jack and Annie's tree house takes them to an exotic island with pirates, where the two discover the power of friendship and the simple pleasures in everyday life. The two siblings return to visit the magic tree house on a dreary, rainy day. They find a book where the sun is shining and the waves are crashing, so they wish to travel to this tropical place. They realize that they are in the eighteenth-century Caribbean, the time of pirates! The siblings meet Captain Bones, a mean old pirate who captures the two and forces them to help him find buried treasure. It's up to Jack and Annie to find their way back to the tree house and make their way home. Magic Tree House: Pirates Past Noon KIDS is a great first pick for new directors, or if you have students who are new to the performing arts. The cast can be expanded to include plenty of pirates and island creatures, and students always enjoy a musical that takes place in a fantasy setting. Audio Sampler - HL00196012 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00196002 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 - Student Books 1 - Director's Guide 1 - Piano/Vocal Score 1 - Accompaniment CD 1 - Choreography DVD 1 - Media Disc 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 00196003 - Director's Guide $100.00 00196004 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00196005 - Student Book $10.00 00196006 - Student Book 10-pak $75.00 00196007 - Performance/Accomp CD pack $75.00 00196008 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00196009 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00196010 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00196011 - Media Disc $10.00 00196012 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Pirates Putting on a Play Spinning to an Island The Tropical Island Song Row, Dogs, Row How Do You Do, I'm Captain Bones (Part 1) How Do You Do, I'm Captain Bones (Part 2) Bones, Bones, Bones Every Pirate Needs a Parrot Reading a Book Gold (Part 1) Gold (Part 2) Spinning Home Treasure Pirates Putting on a Play (Reprise) Bows Jack Jack is a young boy. He is bookish, careful and thoughtful, but he is NOT a nerd! Jack has tremendous curiosity about the world around him and loves to take notes about his observations. Jack tends to be very cautious in new situations, and his adventures in the tree house help him develop his confidence. He has a good (and protective) relationship with his younger sister, Annie, though her more impetuous nature often gets on his nerves. This is a big role and requires a strong singer and actor. Gender: Male Vocal Range: C4-D5 Annie Annie is Jack's younger sister and, in many ways, his opposite in terms of personality. She is a risk-taker who often follows her heart instead of her head. She sometimes teases Jack about his careful attitude toward life and encourages him to be more adventurous. She loves animals of any kind and has a very loving heart. Like Jack, this role requires strong singing and acting. When auditioning, you might mix and match your Jack and Annie hopefuls to see which ones have the best brother-sister chemistry. Gender: Female Vocal Range: C4-E5 Morgan/Polly Morgan is an ageless librarian enchantress. By the end of the play, Jack and Annie learn that the Magic Tree House belongs to Morgan. Morgan magically turns herself into Polly so that she can try to help the kids on this adventure, so for most of the show, Morgan will be costumed as a parrot. Look for an actor who can move easily in a more elaborate costume for most of the show. Although she doesn't speak or sing until the end, this large and important part requires one of your most mature female performers with both strong singing and acting skills. Gender: Female Vocal Range: A3-C5 First Mate The First Mate enjoys being in charge of his crew and must jumpstart the play with a commanding first line. He has solo singing lines and also helps to narrate the story, so cast an actor with a strong speaking and singing voice. This character can be played by a male or female actor. Gender: Both Vocal Range: Bb3-D5 Captain Bones Captain Bones is the epitome of a fearsome, odious pirate. He enjoys being vile and mean. Look for an actor who isn't afraid to really put himself out there - one who has both a physical and vocal swagger. Consider casting your strongest comic performer for this role - the absurd comedic tone of the play is highly dependent on Bones. If possible, it would be fun to cast an actor who is smaller in stature than his minions to highlight the comedy of his bullish ways. Although Bones does sing a solo part on "How Do You Do, I'm Captain Bones (Part 2)," those lines can be spoken, so if you have a kid who is a talented actor but a less-experienced singer, this role would be good for him. Captain Bones can be played by either a girl or a boy as long as the actor has a commanding stage presence and great comedic timing. Gender: Both Vocal Range: B3-C#5 Pinky, Stinky, Blinky and Slinky Pinky, Stinky, Blinky and Slinky are henchmen for Captain Bones. Though these pirates are devoted to Bones, they are not nearly as clever or mean. These large speaking roles all require good comedic timing. These roles are good for kids who will relish being able to dress and talk like a pirate in front of their peers. Look for strong actors who can carry a tune, are good at focusing and taking direction and who are capable of working together as a team. Cast males, females or both. Gender: Both Vocal Range: C4-B4 Jonah Jonah is a cabin boy who wants to help Jack and Annie escape from Bones. In stark contrast to the Pirates, he is kind, soft-spoken and tender-hearted. While being held captive, Jack and Annie teach Jonah how to read. Jonah's solo parts in "Reading a Book" require a strong singer, and the role requires an actor capable of quiet subtlety, so if possible, cast one of your strong performers in this role. If you are short on boys, cast a girl to play a boy. Gender: Both Vocal Range: C4-D5 Billy, Molly, Nathaniel, Wilhelmina, Peter, Pirates Billy, Molly, Nathaniel, Wilhelmina, Peter, and additional Pirates are the often funny and spirited Pirates under the command of Captain Bones. The named Pirates should be the strongest actors and singers of this group. If you don't have enough boys to play Billy and Nathaniel, cast girls who would have fun playing a boy. Casting extra Pirates is a good way to round out the chorus and to utilize performers who are less experienced. Gender: Both Vocal Range: B3-B4 Teeki the Seagull Teeki the Seagull is a jubilant bird with a need to express her joy for life. She is the matriarch of the Island Creatures on this particular Caribbean island. Cast an actor who enjoys the spotlight and who is physically uninhibited - someone who has good vocal and movement skills and isn't afraid to "get into the groove" of the "Tropical Island Song." Gender: Female Vocal Range: Bb3-Eb5 Pedro the Pelican Pedro the Pelican is a prim and proper pelican. Although not a large role, Pedro has a few solo lines. It might be comedic to watch this rather rigid, self-conscious bird get lured into the groove of "The Tropical Island Song" until he or she is the most enthusiastic dancer of them all. Cast an actor who can play shy but who isn't afraid to dance and let loose on stage. Gender: Male Stella the Starfish Stella the Starfish is a sweet, happy starfish who loves to dance. Stella has a few solo lines, so look for an actor who has a strong voice and can lead the other Starfish in a dance. Gender: Female Island Creatures Island Creatures including Pelican #1, Pelican #2, Pelican #3, Lizard #1, Lizard #2, Lizard #3, Corey the Crab, Starfish Partner, Additional Crabs, Lobsters, Starfish and Jellyfish sing "The Tropical Island Song" and "Treasure." Cast as many performers as your stage and program will allow. As long as you have a few strong performers representing each group of creatures, casting extra creatures is a great way to give additional children experience without the pressure of a large role. Feel free to assign character names to match the number of performers you cast. If needed, you can double-cast your more experienced Island Creatures as Pirates as well. Gender: Both
Sister Act Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Alan Menken Lyrics by Glenn Slater Book by Bill & Cheri Steinkellner Additional Book Material by Douglas Carter Beane Overview / Synopsis It's Christmas Eve in 1977 Philadelphia, and Deloris is in the middle of a high- energy audition with her backup singers ("Take Me To Heaven (Nightclub)"). She and the girls are performing for Curtis, Deloris's boyfriend, and his thugs, Joey, TJ, Pablo, and Ernie. Despite praise from the thugs, Curtis doesn't believe Deloris and her singers are ready to perform in his club. After this rejection and a disappointing Christmas gift, Deloris decides that she deserves better, walking away from Curtis and his club with confidence ("Fabulous, Baby!"). However, Deloris is unwillingly drawn back in when she accidentally witnesses Curtis murdering Ernie for being a police informant. Curtis confronts her, but she flees. Deloris goes straight to the police station where Officer Eddie Souther takes an interest in what she has to say. Immediately recognizing the officer as "Sweaty Eddie," a boy who had a crush on her in high school, Deloris puts her faith in Eddie, trusting him to find her a place to hide from her dangerous boyfriend. Eddie thinks of "the perfect place," Queen of Angels Cathedral in South Philadelphia. Mother Superior hesitates to take in the "wayward woman" Monsignor O'Hara describes, but upon his insistence, she agrees. Both Deloris and Mother Superior are shocked when they discover Deloris will be hiding there for a month. Mother Superior is especially distressed to discover that Deloris is not religious. She describes Deloris's new environment to her, handing her a nun's habit to wear ("Here Within These Walls"). Mother Superior introduces Deloris to the nuns, referring to her as Sister Mary Clarence "from a more progressive order." The nuns say a prayer and begin to eat dinner, but when Deloris complains about the food, Mother Superior proposes a fast. While Deloris complains, the nuns enthusiastically share all the reasons why they love being nuns ("It's Good To Be A Nun"). Mother Superior and Deloris are left alone, and Mother Superior has a proposition: would Deloris like to join the choir? The singer quickly says she will. The next morning, Deloris arrives at choir practice and is immediately shocked at how terrible the choir sounds. The nuns, however, are amazed at Deloris's musical talent. Taking the musical baton from choir leader Mary Lazarus, Deloris reminds the nuns that they are "rejoicing" and "singing to the Lord." She encourages the nuns to sing louder, to sing on key, and to blend with each other. By the end of the rehearsal, the choir sounds incredible ("Raise Your Voice"). The choir continues to impress at the next church service, where they draw crowds the church hasn't had for a long time ("Take Me To Heaven (Nun Choir Version)"). But not everyone is impressed by the choir's new sound - Mother Superior calls Eddie to the church, asking him to take Deloris away. Eddie relays this command to Deloris, who is frustrated and concerned that Curtis will find her. She is disappointed with Eddie, and Eddie wishes desperately that he could be her knight in shining armor ("I Could Be That Guy"). Deloris approaches Mother Superior about the choir, trying to get her to understand their performances could be beneficial to the church. Mother Superior disagrees... until Monsignor O'Hara reports that the church is receiving a large number of donations. Mother Superior agrees to keep Deloris in the choir, and the next church service is even more energetic than the previous one ("Sunday Morning Fever - Part 2"). Positive publicity flows in, and the choir is even invited to perform for the pope! The nuns are ecstatic. However, all the publicity has a price - Curtis and his thugs recognize Deloris on TV. They hatch a plot to get into the convent and steal her away ("Lady In The Long Black Dress"). Right before their performance for the pope, the nuns nervously gather in Deloris's room. They ask her to lead them in a blessing, and she does ("Bless Our Show"). Suddenly, Mother Superior bursts into the room, telling Deloris she is in danger and must leave. The nuns are confused - who is Deloris? The musician reveals her true identity and the reason she has been staying in the convent. Though the nuns are shocked and saddened by the news, sweet young postulant Mary Robert approaches Deloris and asks to go with her. The young woman is beginning to doubt being a nun is her true calling ("The Life I Never Led"). Deloris tells her she can't make Mary Robert's decision for her; she must figure that out herself. Mary Robert leaves Deloris her rosary, and Deloris expresses her wish to stay with her sisters ("Sister Act"). The nuns are rehearsing for their performance for the pope when Deloris walks into the room. She has chosen to perform with them, and the nuns are overjoyed. But their joy is quickly interrupted when they hear the sound of a window breaking. Curtis has come for Deloris! The nuns scatter, attempting to hide their sister. After a few minutes of antics, Curtis corners Mary Robert, and Deloris steps in to protect her. With her sisters behind her and Curtis coming for her, Deloris kneels and prays ("Sister Act (Reprise)"). Curtis crosses to Deloris, ready to strike, when Eddie jumps out from the middle of the nuns, surprising the thug. The cops handcuff Curtis and take him away, and Deloris rewards Eddie with a kiss. Mother Superior asks if Deloris will come back to the church to visit, and Deloris says she will be back often to sing. The sisters end the show with a rousing performance for the pope ("Spread The Love Around"). Audio Sampler - HL00294768 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00294771 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script Performance/Accompaniment & Guide Vocal Audio (Digital Only) Choreography Videos (Digital Only) Downloadable Media Resources (Digital Only) Digital Delivery Update Now you can receive digital access to many of the ShowKit components you know and love. Look forward to easily distributing these crucial components to your cast and creative team: Performance Accompaniment Tracks and Guide Vocal Tracks (Formerly Accompaniment CD & Rehearsal CD, respectively) will now be delivered together as a digital download and easily shared with your entire team, cast, and crew Choreography Videos (formerly the Choreography DVD) will be available to stream directly from mtishows.com. Now not only your choreographer but the entire cast will have access to fantastic step-by-step instruction for every Broadway Junior title! Downloadable Resources (formerly the Resources (or Media) Disc), including Audition Materials, a customizable press release, program and other helpful templates, and more can all be accessed with a click of a button 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00294756 - Director's Guide $100.00 00294757 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00294758 - Actor's Script $10.00 00294759 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00294768 - Audio Sampler $10.00 MUSICAL NUMBERS TAKE ME TO HEAVEN (NIGHTCLUB) FABULOUS, BABY! THE PERFECT PLACE HERE WITHIN THESE WALLS IT'S GOOD TO BE A NUN RAISE YOUR VOICE TAKE ME TO HEAVEN (NUN CHOIR VERSION) I COULD BE THAT GUY SUNDAY MORNING FEVER TAKE ME TO HEAVEN (NEWSCAST) LADY IN THE LONG BLACK DRESS BLESS OUR SHOW THE LIFE I NEVER LED SISTER ACT SISTER ACT (REPRISE) SPREAD THE LOVE AROUND Deloris Van Cartier A strong, street- wise aspiring singer who gets caught up with the wrong crowd. When she witnesses a crime involving her ex-boyfriend, she is put in witness protection - as a nun! Deloris is reluctant at first, but the more time she spends at the convent, the more she realizes that time with the sisters is exactly what she needed. Cast a great actress and wonderful singer in this powerhouse role. Tina One of Deloris's backup singers. These featured roles are perfect for enthusiastic performers who may not be quite ready to take on a larger role. Cast solid, good singers who are comfortable with speaking lines in this fun girl group! (And feel free to add these actors to your nun ensemble later in the show.) Nina One of Deloris's backup singers. These featured roles are perfect for enthusiastic performers who may not be quite ready to take on a larger role. Cast solid, good singers who are comfortable with speaking lines in this fun girl group! (And feel free to add these actors to your nun ensemble later in the show.) Elle One of Deloris's backup singers. These featured roles are perfect for enthusiastic performers who may not be quite ready to take on a larger role. Cast solid, good singers who are comfortable with speaking lines in this fun girl group! (And feel free to add these actors to your nun ensemble later in the show.) Michelle One of Deloris's backup singers. These featured roles are perfect for enthusiastic performers who may not be quite ready to take on a larger role. Cast solid, good singers who are comfortable with speaking lines in this fun girl group! (And feel free to add these actors to your nun ensemble later in the show.) Curtis Jackson To put it frankly, a complete jerk. He's not only mean and dishonest, he's also dangerous - and he's got Deloris on his radar. Curtis does not sing a solo, so cast a fantastic actor in this role who can make the most out of playing the bad guy. Joey The wise guy of Curtis's group. He's an upbeat charmer who is always ready with a joke - even though he's one of Curtis's criminals. Cast a charismatic, funny actor with a great singing voice in this role. TJ Not the brightest bulb in the bunch, and the audience is meant to have a few laughs at his expense. Cast a solid comedic actor who has great chemistry onstage with Joey and Pablo. Pablo The strong, silent type who definitely leans into his role as the muscle of the group. He has a few lines and sings some, but most importantly, he should make a great third member of the trio with Joey and TJ. Ernie One of Curtis's thugs and, unfortunately, takes the fall for being a police informant. This is a featured role for a good actor! Feel free to double Ernie as an Altar Boy or the Monsignor O'Hara later in the show if your program is short on male actors - just make sure that the audience won't confuse the characters if they are played by the same person. Cop The first person to talk to Deloris about Ernie's murder. This is a featured role for a performer who may be new to the stage. Eddie Souther The quintessential good guy with a heart of gold. Though Eddie was overlooked by Deloris in high school, he never quite got over his crush on her, which results in a few awkwardly endearing moments throughout the show. Cast an excellent actor, singer, and dancer who can portray this hardworking, sweet, dependable cop. Mother Superior Devoted leader of the convent. Her church and her sisters come before all else - and she's not afraid to voice her opinion. Mother Superior means well and eventually comes around regarding Deloris. Mother Superior is a major role, so look for an excellent singer and actress who can portray this strong, independent woman. Monsignor O'Hara The charming spiritual leader of the Queen of Angels Cathedral. His bottom line is to save their church, and he will do anything to support the bottom line - including forcing Mother Superior to house Deloris. Monsignor O'Hara should have a good stage presence and a sense of comic timing. He does not sing a solo in the show, so cast an actor with charisma who can take over the stage! Mary Patrick A nun in the convent. She is an upbeat, over-the-top, enthusiastic person who is always looking on the bright side. She has a number of solos within songs, so cast a good singer and actor in this fun role. Mary Robert A postulant and the youngest of the abbey's inhabitants. Shy, soft- spoken, and a bit of a wallflower, she enjoys being a nun, but her friendship with Deloris lets her truly find her voice. Cast a powerhouse singer and a great actor in this role. Mary Lazarus One of the older nuns at the convent, and she leads the choir. She is rather deadpan and not particularly welcoming to Deloris at first, though Deloris's love of music eventually wins her over. Cast a great character actor with a sense of comic timing who is comfortable with character singing. Mary Martin-Of-Tours A nun who definitely exists in her own world, so cast a good actor in this role that can make strong character choices. This nun has some wonderful stand-out moments, which include delivering an excellent karate chop, but she does not sing a solo, so cast someone who is a stronger actor than singer for this memorable role. Mary Celeste Mary Celeste and Mary Irene are the convent's cooks. They have a few featured solos, so cast confident singers in these roles. Mary Irene Mary Celeste and Mary Irene are the convent's cooks. They have a few featured solos, so cast confident singers in these roles. Mary Stephen A nun in the convent with a fantastic singing voice. She's supportive of Deloris's music from the start. Cast a great singer. Mary Theresa The oldest nun in the convent. She has a few featured lines and a small solo. This role is a great opportunity for someone new to the stage, so cast a good actor in this role who is comfortable singing in a group. Nuns The Nuns (including Nun 1, Nun 2, and Nun 3) help fill out of the world of the convent. Nun 1, Nun 2, and Nun 3 have featured solos, so be sure to cast actors in these roles that are ready for their moment in the spotlight. Ensemble Roles include: additional Nuns, Altar Boys, Street People, Angry Street Person, and Members of the Congregation
Disney's Beauty And The Beast Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Alan Menken Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice Book by Linda Woolverton Overview / Synopsis Based on the acclaimed films and Tony®-winning Broadway musical, Beauty and the Beast JR., tells the story of the bright and beautiful Belle, who yearns to escape her provincial life... and her brute of a suitor, Gaston. However, Belle gets more adventure than she wished for when she becomes a captive in the Beast's enchanted castle! Dancing flatware, menacing wolves, and singing furniture fill the stage with thrills in this beloved fairy tale about two very different people finding strength in one another and learning how to love. Audio Sampler - HL00125498 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00125488 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00125490 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00125489 - Director's Script $100.00 00125491 - Actor's Script $10.00 00125492 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 00125493 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 00125496 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00125494 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00125495 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 00125497 - Media Disc $10.00 00125498 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample SCENE 1 Belle [All] SCENE 4 Belle (Reprise) [Silly Girls, Belle] SCENE 5 Home [Belle] Home (Tag) [Mrs. Potts, Madame] SCENE 6 Gaston [Lefou, Silly Girls, Gaston, All] Gaston (Reprise) [Gaston, Lefou] SCENE 7 Be Our Guest [Lumiere, Chip, Flatware,Mrs. Potts, All] SCENE 9 Something There [Belle, Beast, Lumiere, Cogsworth, Mrs. Potts, Madame, Babette] Human Again [Lumiere, Mrs. Potts, Chip, Babette, Madame, Cogsworth, All] SCENE 11 Beauty and the Beast [Mrs. Potts] SCENE 12 The Mob Song [Villagers, Gaston, Monsieur, Lefou] SCENE 13 Home (Reprise) [Belle] Finale [All] Narrators The Narrators provide great opportunities to involve children that are more comfortable speaking than singing. The script is written to feature four Narrators, but you could adapt the roles to incorporate more students (or fewer) depending on the size of your cast. Be sure the students you cast in these roles can enunciate and project, as they are key to the momentum of this beautiful tale. You can cast the school principal, a teacher or a wellknown community member as the one of the Narrators to get your entire community involved. These roles can be completely non-singing, but the actors could be cast from your ensemble if desired. Belle Belle is a smart, confident young woman from a small village. You will want to cast a child who is a strong singer and actress. Belle needs to be able to stand up to Gaston (and the Beast!) as well as those who don't seem to understand her, while being able to show compassion for her father, the Servants, and eventually the Beast. During auditions, you can bet that most of the girls will be trying out for the role of Belle. If there are several female students in your school that could perform the role, you should consider casting two girls to play Belle on alternating nights, sharing the responsibility of this large role. Maurice Maurice is an eccentric, older inventor, yet more importantly, the adoring and protective father of Belle. This non-solo singing role is perfect for the student who can have fun interpreting this "crazy old man" while conveying some very strong emotions: fear and fatherly love! The Beast The Beast is the master of the castle who was transformed by the Enchantress's spell. Casting for size is not as important as choosing a student that can handle this complex character: a dictator, a hurt child, a hero, a defender and a smitten prince. Cast an actor who can deliver a range of conflicting emotional states. While the Beast does sing a small bit during "Something There" and the "Finale," this is truly an acting role with no demanding singing required. It is absolutely possible to cast a non-singer as the Beast and have the student speak/sing his lyrics. Also, keep in mind that if you choose to cast the Prince separately from the Beast, the Prince would end up singing the Beast's lines in the "Finale." Gaston Gaston is pompous and dim-witted and will do whatever it takes to win Belle's hand. Gaston has all the confidence in the world, but lacks the humility to balance it. A strong singing and speaking voice and acting ability are more important than size and stature for this role. He has to be able to sell his big number, "Gaston," with gusto and arrogance as well as lead the troops in "The Mob Song." Biceps can humorously be added, but the bravura needs to be there on the inside! Lefou Lefou is Gaston's equally dim-witted lackey. You might consider auditioning Lefou and Gaston in pairs. This character needs to be Gaston's foil and should double the laughs for them both. Lefou should be able to sing, act and dance. As a nice touch, you may choose to cast a student who has some gymnastic training if you wish to embed a lanky, awkward style into Lefou's movement. The Silly Girls The Silly Girls are in love with Gaston and will do almost anything just to be near him. Look for three girls who can portray the comic nature of these roles and who also enjoy playing off each other. The Silly Girls sing together in three numbers and their sound should mix well. Lumiere Lumiere is a self-confident, charming, French mâitre d' who (under the Enhantress's spell) is becoming a candelabra. He has a never-ending give-and-take with Cogsworth, so the student playing Lumiere must work well with the child you cast for that role. Consider auditioning in pairs. Lumiere should be a strong singer who can "light up" the stage in "Be Our Guest." If you have a child who can handle the French accent, fantastic! This role covers a range of emotions (from charming entertainer to brave soldier) and requires prominent song and dance, so try to cast a strong, reliable performer. Cogsworth Cogsworth is the English major-domo of the castle who is becoming a mantle clock. He, like all of the castle's Servants, shows a fatherly compassion for Belle yet is perfectly submissive to their master, the Beast. Cogsworth has two sides - he is a wee bit of a baby at times yet has no problem "getting into it" with Lumiere. Cast a strong actor and singer who enjoys acting "in charge" and is willing to try a British accent. Mrs. Potts Mrs. Potts is the castle's endearing cook who has been enchanted to become a teapot. Mrs. Potts needs a strong, sweet voice and should be able to convey comforting, maternal qualities amidst the chaos that is breaking out at the castle. See if you can find an actress who can portray a character whom every audience member would want for a mom. Babette Babette is the maid and "resident flirt" of the castle who is turning into a feather duster. She misses the finer things in life as well as just being a girl. Babette is happy to be at Belle's service at a moment's notice, but her true heart comes through in "Human Again." Look for a good actor with solid vocal skills to handle Babette's harmonies. Madame De La Grande Bouche Madame De La Grande Bouche is an opera singer who is becoming a wardrobe. Madame is almost larger than life in everything she does, including her singing and dancing. Look for that student who can portray the ultimate "diva with a heart" with a big personality and a big voice. Madame has some harmony lines with Mrs. Potts and Babette, so cast a singer who can hold her own, but also knows when to pull back in order to sound good with the others. Chip Chip is Mrs. Potts's son, who is becoming a teacup. You can certainly cast a much younger child for this role, but it is not imperative. Chip has a wonderful na�vet� that endears him to all of the Servants. Cast an actor who can portray the honesty and the spirit of a young person and is comfortable trying to sing Chip's few solo lines. If convincing, Chip will win the hearts of the entire audience. Old Beggar Woman / Enchantress The Old Beggar Woman / Enchantress should be an actor with the ability to be visually dramatic. Her transformation in the Prologue from the Old Beggar Woman to the Enchantress should magically entice all into the story. Monsieur D'Arque Monsieur D'Arque is the dark, creepy proprietor of the lunatic asylum who adds more tension to the story. Cast an actor who can believably interpret this sinister personality. While Monsieur does have a few lines of solo singing in "The Mob Song," this is primarily a non-singing role, so look for a solid actor first. Servants The Servants of the castle can include Statues, a Dust Pan, Flatware, Plates, an Egg Timer, Napkins, a Carpet, Salt & Pepper Shakers and whatever other household items or kitchenware you choose to cast in your show. These enchanted Servants are the "Rockettes" of their time. These students should be able to handle a potentially awkward costume while singing and dancing. These are great roles to cast multiple ages of children if you are trying to augment a cast. Look for good singers and dancers as they have two big production numbers to sell. Villagers The Villagers provide a colorful background singing throughout the show, and several also step into the action when needed to play in certain scenes. The featured roles vary in size and vocal requirements. The Ensemble will be needed to provide vocal power throughout the show and dance in the production numbers, so be sure to cast performers with a wide base of ability. These actors can double as the castle Servants if necessary.
20th Century French Art Songs Hal Leonard Online - French Art Songs 20th CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968). 20TH CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
Children Of Eden Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by John Caird Music and Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Based on a concept by Charles Lisanby Orchestrations by Bruce Coughlin and Martin Erskine Overview / Synopsis From musical theatre greats, Stephen Schwartz and John Caird, comes a joyous and inspirational musical about parents, children and faith ... not to mention centuries of unresolved family business! An expansive musical, Children of Eden JR. has plenty of roles and life lessons for everyone. Adam, Eve, Noah and the "Father" who created them deal with the headstrong, cataclysmic actions of their respective children. As generations pass, faith and loyalty are tested, but the bonds of family and love remain strong. This moving, foot-stomping musical is perfect for a large cast. Children of Eden JR. is a wonderful show for faith-based groups looking for a large-scale pageant with sweeping music. Audio Sampler - HL00275518 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00275519 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Director's Guide Piano/Vocal Score 2 Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs Media Disc Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00275509 - Director's Guide $100.00 00275510 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00275511 - Actor's Script $10.00 00275512 - Actor's Script 10-pak $75.00 00275513 - Rehearsal/Accompaniment CDs $75.00 00275514 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00275515 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00275516 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00275517 - Media Disc $10.00 00275518 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample MUSICAL NUMBERS Let There Be Father's Greeting The Naming Grateful Children Perfect The Spark of Creation In Pursuit of Excellence The End of a Perfect Day Childhood's End A World Without You The Expulsion Wasteland/Wilderness Family Close to Home Lost in the Wilderness Class of the Generations Death of Abel The Mark of Cain Children of Eden Generations A Piece of Eight Noah's Lullaby Stranger to the Rain In Whatever Time We Have The Flood/What Is He Waiting For? Sailor of the Skies The Hardest Part of Love The Hour of Darkness Ain't It Good? In the Beginning Father Father is the all-knowing, all-powerful creator of the universe. Father has a larger-than-life persona and embodies an authoritative presence, balanced with a fair amount of humor and a sense of fun. Father truly loves his children but expects obedience, and is not afraid to punish them if they don't follow his wishes. Cast an excellent, advanced actor and a great singer in this role who can truly command the stage. Ideally, this actor will read as older onstage. Gender: Male Vocal range: Bb2 - G Adam/Noah Adam/Noah should be a versatile performer. Adam embodies the excitement, wonder and childlike innocence of mankind before the fall, and also the strength and persistence needed after they are expelled from the Garden. He should pair well and have a great relationship with Eve, since he will eventually choose her over Father. Noah is also the leader of his family but is a bit less serious, although he also must make a big decision that affects the lives of everyone he loves. Cast a performer who is a natural leader and has a charismatic stage presence. This performer should be a great actor and a wonderful singer, and be comfortable taking command of the stage. Gender: Male Vocal range: Ab2 - Ab4 Eve/Mama Eve/Mama must win over the audience's hearts. Eve is bright, precocious, loving and has an adventurous streak. Ultimately, her curiosity is what leads to her banishment, though she never stops loving Father. Her life gets harder after leaving the Garden, but Eve's spark never fully goes out. Mama is more subtle than Eve, but has a deep strength that is evident in her love for her family. She is honest, smart and not afraid to offer Noah her advice and opinions. This role calls for an exceptional actress and outstanding singer who can make strong character choices. Eve/Mama should also pair well with Adam/Noah. Gender: Female Vocal range: A3 - E5 Snake The Snake (Snake 1, Snake 2, Snake 3, Snake 4 and Snake 5) lures Eve to the tree and ultimately convinces her to take a bite of the apple. This is a great place to put excellent movers or dancers who can make the Snake feel cohesive. Gender: Both Vocal range: A3 - E5 Young Cain Young Cain is reminiscent of Eve in the Garden. He is curious, confident and wants to know the answers to all his questions. Cast a good actor and singer who can work with Cain to create continuity between the character as a child and an adult. Gender: Male Vocal range: Gb2 - Db4 Young Abel Young Abel is gentle, sweet and content with their life as a family, even without the Garden. He loves his parents and his brother, and does not have the same need for answers as Young Cain. Cast a good actor and singer who can work with Abel to create continuity between the character at both ages. Gender: Male Vocal range: Gb2 - Db4 Cain/Japheth Cain/Japheth must be comfortable making strong choices onstage. Cain is passionate, curious, longs for adventure and places the blame squarely at his parents' feet for giving away his portion of the Garden. He is angry at Adam, Eve, Father and the unfairness of his circumstances. He doesn't return from beyond the waterfall with the intention to kill Abel - but, he allows rage to overtake him, and must endure the consequences. Japheth is more polished than Cain, though has a similar rebellious streak that almost results in the same tragedy. His love for Yonah is his driving force, and he is willing to risk everything in order for them to be together. Cast a fantastic singer and a wonderful actor as Cain/Japheth. Remember, these roles require some stage combat, so make sure to cast a mature performer who can be trusted to execute fight choreography safely. Gender: Male Vocal range: C#3 - Ab4 Abel/Ham Abel/Ham should be able to create two completely different characters. Abel is gentle, thoughtful and obedient. He would never cause trouble on his own, but he is caught between his love for his brother, Cain, and his love for his parents. Though Abel respects his parents and Father, Cain can usually find a way to convince Abel to follow him. Abel reflects Adam's choice to leave the Garden, and his death is a turning point in the show. Ham is one of Noah's sons, and Aphra's husband. He wants to please Father, and is more mild-mannered than his brother Shem. Cast a performer in these roles who is a good singer and solid actor. Keep in mind that these roles must also learn fight choreography, so make sure you cast a responsible actor who will complete the choreography safely every time. Gender: Male Vocal range: F3 - E4 Seth/Shem Seth/Shem should focus mostly on Shem. Seth appears onstage at an important time in the story, but does not speak or sing. Shem is the oldest of the brothers and rather hot-headed. Married to Aysha, he is the first to blame Yonah for the family's problems aboard the ark. Shem does not have a solo, so he does not need to be a strong singer. Cast an expressive actor with a great stage presence who can make strong character choices. Gender: Male Yonah Yonah is a descendant of Cain who works as a servant for Noah's family. While Yonah finds herself in unfortunate circumstances, she handles adversity with grace and strength. She is kind and selfless, and ultimately wins Father and Noah over with her goodness when Noah finally gives she and Japheth permission to wed. Cast an expressive actress with a wonderful singing voice who pairs well with Cain/Japheth. Gender: Female Vocal range: Ab3 - Eb5 Aysha Aysha Aysha is a bit unhappy with their situation aboard the ark. Married to Shem, she also blames Yonah for their troubles, and isn't afraid to let everyone know exactly what she thinks. Aysha does not need to be a strong singer - instead, look for an animated performer with a good stage presence for this role. Gender: Female Aphra Aphra Aphra is a bit of worrywart. Married to Ham, she worries about the flood, and how it will affect their growing family. Like Aysha, Aphra doesn't need to be a strong singer, but she should be a good actor able to embody Aphra's sensitive nature. Gender: Female Ensemble Ensemble consists of the Storytellers, Soloist, Soloist (1, 2, 3), Female Soloist, Seth's Wife, and optional Animals. Feel free to cast as many performers as Storytellers who want to participate in the show. For Soloist, Soloist (1, 2, 3), and Female Soloist, check the vocal range to make sure you cast a performer who can handle the music. Seth's Wife does not speak and does not need to be a strong singer, so this is a great cameo for a newer performer. Gender: Both Female Soloist Gender: Female Vocal range: G3 - C5 Soloist Gender: Male Vocal range: G2 - G3 Soloist 1 Gender: Both Vocal range: F#4 - C5 Soloist 2 Vocal range: D4 - C5 Soloist 3 Vocal range: G3 - G4
Godspell Jr. - Broadway Junior Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit™? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Alice in Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) Bugsy Malone Jr. Children Of Eden Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) High School Musical 2 Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Conceived and Originally Directed by John-Michael Tebelak Music and New Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Originally Produced on the New York Stage by Edgar Lansbury, Stuart Duncan and Joseph Beruh Overview / Synopsis Godspell JR.* is the young performer's edition of John-Michael Tebelak and Stephen Schwartz's groundbreaking and unique reflection on the life of Jesus, with a message of kindness, tolerance and love. Godspell is an engaging, innovative show that draws from various theatrical traditions, including clowning, pantomime, charades, acrobatics and vaudeville. Originally conceived for a cast of ten, the Broadway Junior version of Godspell is designed to allow you to expand your cast to include as many student performers as your stage can accommodate. Each of the parables and songs used in Godspell can be cast with a different group of students and can be rehearsed separately, allowing groups to rehearse simultaneously. If you choose to add the optional Godspell JR. Choir, you can use nearly everyone from your school or group who wishes to participate. Godspell can be performed virtually anywhere with the simplest of sets, costumes, lights and music. This show will be a favorite of performers and audiences alike! The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this John-Michael Tebelak story and Stephen Schwartz score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Audio Sampler - HL00103055 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971784 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request * Godspell JR. is not available in Canada Individual Components 09971786 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971785 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971787 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971788 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971789 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971790 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971676 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00103054 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971791 - Media Disc $10.00 00103055 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Act 1 Prepare Ye the Way of the Lord [John the Baptist, Company] Save the People [Jesus, Company] Day by Day [Solo, Company] Learn Your Lessons Well [Solo1, Solo 2] O, Bless the Lord, My Soul [Solo, Company] All for the Best [Jesus, Judas, Company] All Good Gifts [Solo, Company] We Beseech Thee [Solo, Company] Light of the World [Solo 1, Solo 2, Company] Act 2 Beautiful City [Female Solo] On the Willows [Orchestra] Finale [Jesus, Company] Bows [Company] Exit [Orchestra] Jesus Jesus is first and foremost a teacher. He should come off very naturalistic, not high and mighty or judgmental. He should be charismatic with being affected; serious, but with a good sense of humor; somebody who everybody likes and wants to have as a friend. While he doesn't have to sing a lot, his first song, "Save the People," should sound beautiful, clear and unaffected. John the Baptist/Judas John the Baptist/Judas is a role played by one person. It is important to note that in the original production of Godspell, the actors all used their own names and the original script did not include characters designated as "Judas" or "John the Baptist." As you cast this role, remember it is not really two different roles, just one actor embodying the actions of these two biblical figures. The character is charismatic, but also headstrong and sometimes acts in rash ways. Be daring in your casting - this role does not necessarily have to be played by a male performer. SOLO SINGERS "Day by Day" The singer who leads "Day by Day" doesn't need to have a wide range, but the song should sit in a place where they can sing it out strongly and with conviction. "Learn Your Lessons Well" The two soloists for "Learn Your Lessons Well" should be your singers who can enunciate expertly - the song is less about the melody and more about getting the words out quickly and so the audience can understand them. "O Bless the Lord, My Soul" This is a big song with several changes in tempo and tone. It requires your singer with the biggest, most dexterous voice. Even though the tempo becomes very bright during the song, don't worry if you don't cast your best dancer: letting the soloist stand and sing while the ensemble moves around them works just fine. "All Good Gifts" The slow, beautiful ballad of Godspell. Of all the songs in the show, this one demands your most beautiful voice. "We Beseech Thee" Here's one for the class clown! It can be almost spoken and still work well, as long as your performer has personality plus! "Light of the World" Another song that can almost be spoken - but remember, it's a song about making sure your light shines throughout the world - the singer has to really "sell" the song! "Beautiful City" Beautiful and sincere, the singer must be able to let the audience know that they understand the message Jesus has been teaching. FEATURED ACTORS/ACTRESSES Narrators Most of the parables have a narrator or two. Your narrators should be among your best speakers. You should be confident that they can handle longer sections of dialogue. Players Some of the players have lines and some do not. All players should be encouraged to develop larger than life characters.