Pro Vocal Series


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Whether you're a karaoke singer or an auditioning professional, the Pro Vocal series is for you. The books contain the lyrics, melody and chord symbols for eight hit songs. Each book contains demos for listening, and separate backing tracks so you can sing along. The audio includes software to let you control the tempo without changing the pitch. This innovative feature allows singers to transpose songs to any key to suit their voice type. Perfect for home rehearsal, parties, auditions, corporate events, and gigs without a backup band. Available in editions for Men, Women and Mixed Collections. Newer volumes include online audio tracks that can be streamed or downloaded with Playback+ software. 

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Sean O'Loughlin | Hal Leonard Sean O'Loughlin Sean O’Loughlin (b.1972) is the Principal Pops Conductor of Symphoria, from Syracuse (NY). He is a fresh voice and a rising name in the music world. His music is characterized by vibrant rhythms, passionate melodies, and colorful scoring. Commissions from the Boston Pops Orchestra, the San Francisco Symphony, the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra highlight and showcase his diverse musical abilities. As a conductor, he has led performances with the Boston Pops Orchestra, the San Francisco Symphony, the Chicago Symphony, the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the Minnesota Orchestra, the Dallas Symphony, the Vancouver Symphony, the Atlanta Symphony, the Baltimore Symphony, the Houston Symphony, the Victoria Symphony and the Seattle Symphony amongst others. He has served as conductor for summer symphony tours with Josh Groban, Sarah McLachlan, Melissa Etheridge and the Jerry Garcia Symphonic Celebration. Recent collaborations include such artists as Sarah McLachlan, Adele, Josh Groban, Bonnie Raitt, Steven Tyler and Joe Perry, Kelly Clarkson, Melissa Etheridge, Blue Man Group, Janelle Monáe, Audra McDonald, Hall and Oates, Gloria Estefan, the Indigo Girls, Diana Krall, Itzhak Perlman, Natalie Merchant, Chris Isaak,  Pink Martini, Brandi Carlile, The Decemberists, Martina McBride, Josh Ritter, The Go Go's, Gloria Gaynor and others. The Los Angeles Times calls Sean's orchestrations "...magnificent and colorful" while adding "...even more dimension..." to the compositions. Daily Variety heralds his writing as "most impressive..." with a "wide range of coloring in the orchestra..." that "...adds heft and rolling energy." Through his growing number of commissioned and published works, Sean is excited to continue contributing to the rich history of orchestral and wind band literature. He is a frequent guest conductor with professional orchestras and honor bands around the country. An annual ASCAP Special Awards winner, Sean was a composition fellow at the Henry Mancini Institute in Los Angeles, and holds composition degrees from New England Conservatory and Syracuse University. Publications by Sean O'Loughlin
20th Century French Art Songs | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Online - French Art Songs 20th CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968). 20TH CENTURY FRENCH ART SONGS Mélodies française du XXe siècle Edited by Carol Kimball Published by Éditions Durand DF 16250/HL 50565798 High Voice edition DF 16251/HL 50565799 Medium/Low Voice edition Distributed in Europe and Asia by Hal Leonard MGB Distributed in North and South America by Hal Leonard Distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Hal Leonard Australia Download & Print Introductory Notes Complete Online Introductory Notes, Unabridged copyright © 2015 Editions Durand An abridged version of editor Carol Kimball’s “Introduction” appears in the High Voice and Medium/Low Voice publications. Her complete length “Introduction” appears below. See the publications for the poetry texts in French and translations in English. GEORGES AURIC CLAUDE DEBUSSY HENRI DUTILLEUX GABRIEL FAURÉ REYNALDO HAHN ARTHUR HONEGGER JACQUES LEGUERNEY OLIVIER MESSIAEN DARIUS MILHAUD FRANCIS POULENC MAURICE RAVEL ALBERT ROUSSEL ERIK SATIE DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC GEORGES AURIC (1899-1983) George Auric was something of a child prodigy, performing a piano recital at the Musicale Indépendante at the age of fourteen. The following year, the Société Nationale de Musique performed several songs he had composed. He studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire with Georges Caussade, and later with Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum de Paris. Before he was twenty, Auric had orchestrated and written incidental music for several stage productions and ballets. He composed a significant amount of avant-garde music during the years between 1910-20. Around 1914, he widened his acquaintances to include members of Les Six, a group of composers informally associated with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau, and became a part of their group. Auric and Francis Poulenc became fast friends and remained so for life. Music criticism was an important part of Auric’s career; his writing focused on promoting the ideals of Les Six and Cocteau. He was also especially known for his film scores, which are consistently imaginative. He forged a major career in the English movies of the 1940s and ’50s. Among his most well-known scores is the music for the film Moulin Rouge. Other popular film titles with scores by Auric include The Lavender Hill Mob, Roman Holiday, Beauty and the Beast, and Bonjour Tristesse. In 1962 he became the director of the Opéra National de Paris and later, chairman of SACEM, the French Performing Rights Society. Auric continued to write classical chamber music until his death. Le Jeune sanguine (1940) from Trois Poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin poem by Louise de Vilmorin (1902-1969) This mélodie is the second song in Auric’s cycle titled Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin. Vilmorin’s poetry reverberates with sensitivity to affairs of the heart. She was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets; he set her poetry when writing specifically for the female voice, such as in Fiançailles pour rire. A sort of veiled humor is at the heart of this text that describes a young hussy whose lover departs early with the dawn’s first light, leaving her weeping disconsolately. Auric provides a prelude and postlude for formal balance as the miserable young woman mourns her loss. He also inserts several unexpected and amusing measures of a tango as the young man arches his back and leaves the sound of her sobbing. For his three Vilmorin songs, Auric used the style of a chansonette, or more popular song. Printemps (1935) Poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Auric composed this lilting waltz song for a play by Edouard Bourdet titled La Reine Margot (1935). The celebrated musical theatre actress-singer Yvonne Printemps created the role of Queen Margot of Navarre at Théâtre de la Michodière. Auric and Francis Poulenc collaborated on the incidental music for this play; Poulenc took the second act, Auric the first. Poulenc composed the Suite française and the song “A sa guitare”; Auric’s contribution was “Printemps.” Yvonne Printemps sang both songs in the play. Both composers used texts by Pierre de Ronsard, and the musical style of each is reminiscent of the Renaissance. Ronsard’s original poem had twenty-three stanzas. Auric set only the first three. BACK TO TOP CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Claude Debussy wrote expertly for the voice and was acutely responsive to transforming poetic nuance into musical expression. Possibly no other French composer was as attuned to blending poetry and music. His literary taste was highly refined and he maintained a visible and active role in the literary and artistic circles of his time. He chose to set poetry of his contemporaries, notably Verlaine and Mallarmé. Verlaine’s verse with its inherent musical qualities, provided Debussy with poetry for numerous works. For Debussy, poetry as poetry was the paramount determinant of the musical texture. His ability to detect the essence of a poem and perfectly transform it into musical expression makes his mélodies unique in the history of French song. Le promenoir des deux amants (1904, 1910) poems by Tristan l’Hermite (c. 1601-1656) “Auprès de cette grotte sombre,” the first song, made its first appearance with the title “La Grotte,” song two of Trois chansons de France of 1904. In 1910, it was retitled and combined with two other poems by Tristan l’Hermite (“Crois mon conseil, chère Climène” and “Je tremble en voyant ton visage”) to form the miniature cycle Le Promenoir de deux amants, which has been called the finest of all Debussy’s works for voice and piano. It is also the least-often performed. Debussy chose the texts from Les Amours de Tristan, a collection by the seventeenth-century poet Tristan l’Hermite. The poems are set close to a grotto, secluded and silent. The transparent, barely stirring waters mingle with the silence of the cloistered spot, creating a dreamlike atmosphere. Debussy establishes an intimate, tender mood immediately and maintains this fragile mix of sound and color throughout the three mélodies. The interplay of resonance and texture in voice and piano results in an exquisite blend of light and shade, perfectly complementing l’Hermite’s poetic images. Subtly inflected vocal phrases are key to recreating the infinite calm and Pelléas-like atmosphere of the poetry, a perfect fusion of stillness and sensuality. Fêtes galantes II (1904) poems by Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) Debussy’s fascination with the work of the French Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine resulted in his setting to music no fewer than seventeen of Verlaine’s texts. He composed two sets of three songs each, both titled Fêtes galantes, the first in 1892, and the second in 1904. Fêtes galantes II, Debussy’s last setting of Verlaine, closely following the composition of his opera Pélleas et Mélisande, is representative of the composer’s mature vocal works. It is marked by sparser textures, freer tonalities and a more concentrated compositional style than the first set; but like the first set, Fêtes galantes II presents three unrelated songs. None of the Watteau-like scenes are found here; rather, these three poems are filled with mystery, and are without sentimentality. The theme of time appears in each of the poems: the first, sentimental youthful remembrances; the second, inexorable fleeting time; and finally in the last song, time never to be reclaimed. “Les Ingénus” recalls the first awakenings of sexual attraction, and deals with the breathless awe with which a group of unsophisticated young men of the mid-nineteenth century view their similarly naïve female companions. The scene unfolds in a highly chromatic texture, skillfully balanced to preserve the delicate, poignant images in Verlaine’s verse. Debussy’s free-floating harmonies are carefully contrived to complement the uncertain emotions and repressed sensations of the youths in the poem. “Le Faune” begins with a prelude; time unravels in an inflexible dance featuring a rhythmic, hypnotic figure in the piano, imaging the traditional reed pipe and “tambourin,” a small drum played with a stick. The old terra-cotta statue in Verlaine’s poem is probably the woodland god Pan, playing a monotonous rhythm that is both sensual and slightly menacing, matching the mood of the two mélancolique pélerins. Mesmerized by the repetitive rhythms of drum and reed flute, the dejected travelers are caught in the whirlpool of passing time, which spins past as they watch helplessly. “Colloque sentimental.” Colloquial (colloque) refers to ordinary speech or conversation. This disturbing poem is the touchstone of one of Debussy’s great mélodies. It is the last poem in Verlaine’s collection titled Fêtes galantes, and provides a chilling climax. It blends themes of despair, death and disillusion. In this extraordinary song, the ghosts of two lovers meet in a wintry park. As they speak of their former love, their words match the setting: glacial and detached from feeling. Throughout the song their wintry words are enhanced by Debussy’s simple and subtle vocal treatment: one voice urgent and persistent, the other stonily indifferent. Debussy’s manipulation of musical texture between voice and piano is masterful. The sparse vocal lines are almost speech-like, and the piano figures mirror the frozen landscape in which this conversation–equally cold–takes place. The song’s kinship to Debussy’s opera Pélleas et Mélisande is unmistakable. The listener becomes one with the poem’s narrator, straining to see and hear the couple’s conversation in the icy cold of the deserted, frozen park. Debussy reaches back to “En sourdine” (the first mélodie of Fêtes galantes I), takes the wistful song of the nightingale, and inserts it into this song at various points. The nightingale’s melody (“voix de nôtre dessespoir, le rossignol chantera”) provides a touching and melancholy association, linking the two sets of Fêtes galantes together symbolically and musically, foreshadowing the disenchantment of love hinted at in “En sourdine” with the lovers’ conversation in “Colloque sentimental,” and unifying the two sets by a subtle musical component. This panel of three mélodies was Debussy’s last setting of the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maisons (1915) poem by the composer This is Debussy’s last song, written to his own text, a Christmas carol for children made homeless by World War I. Its intensity comes from its simple sincerity. Debussy composed it on the eve of his first operation for the cancer that would end his life two years later. It was his personal protest against the invasion of northern France by the German armies. When asked for permission to orchestrate the song, Debussy refused, saying, “I want this piece to be sung with the most discreet accompaniment. Not a word of the text must be lost, inspired as it is by the rapacity of our enemies. It is the only way I have to fight the war.” Originally composed in 1915 for piano and voice, Debussy also created a version for children’s chorus, and in 1916, a version for piano and two sopranos. BACK TO TOP HENRI DUTILLEUX (1916-2013) Henri Dutilleux studied at the Paris Conservatory with Maurice Emmanuel. He received the Prix de Rome in 1938 at age twenty-two, and went on to work at the Paris Opéra and the French Radio. France’s musical institutions defined his career: in 1961, he joined the faculty at the école Normale de Musique, teaching composition. In 1970, he taught at the Paris Conservatoire. He destroyed many of his early works, considering them derivative of Ravel, the preeminent composer in France during his youth. His music that had been published avoided demolition. After World War II, Dutilleux concentrated almost exclusively on instrumental and orchestral music, much of which has been widely programmed and recorded. His songs are not well known. In the chronological catalogue of his compositions, beginning in 1929, the Quatre mélodies for mezzo soprano or baritone is only the eleventh entry. It also exists in an orchestral version. The collection is dedicated to the French baritone Charles Panzéra and his wife, pianist Magdeleine Panzéra-Baillot, prominent interpreters of French song in the interwar years. Gabriel Fauré dedicated his last cycle, L’horizon chimérique, to Panzéra. Quatre mélodies (1942) uses poems by four different poets and presents a delightful collection of moods, although it must be admitted that the level of the poetry is not uniformly high: “Féérie au clair de lune” (poem by Raymond Genty), a graceful scherzo of dancing fairies that evokes Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream; “Pour une amie perdue” (Edmond Borsent); “Regards sur l’infini” (Anna de Noailles); and “Fantasio” (André Bellessort). The last mélodie is the most successful of the set and is one of two songs from the set (the other being “Pour une amie perdue”) that Dutilleux acknowledged. He wanted to exclude the first and third songs because their poetry was relatively mediocre. Fantasio (1942) from Quatre Mélodies poem by André Bellessort (1866-1942) “Fantasio” (the original title of Bellessort’s poem is “Les funérailles de Fantasio”) is a colorful poem that chronicles the funeral of the titled character, who has expired before the text begins. The poem, set in Venice during Carnival, is full of glittering and compelling imagery that changes quickly, following the pace of the Carnival. Musical textures are skillfully handled and exhibit some of Dutilleux’s developing style. “Pauvre Fantasio,” is heard several times during the text, acting as both a funereal chant that unifies the proceedings and perhaps as well, keeping the mourners’ footsteps marching together. BACK TO TOP GABRIEL FAURÉ (1845-1924) Gabriel Fauré was one of the great composers of French song who, with Duparc and Debussy, perfected the mélodie as a true art song form. He composed about a hundred songs, all original in conception, constantly developing in style, and pointing the way to future works. His songs express a broad range of emotion and a great variety of musical textures, extending the musical parameters of the genre and inspiring new techniques of song compositions. His songs are often divided into three compositional periods for purposes of study and definition. Fauré has been characterized as a skillful watchmaker; with great precision his songs, which overflow with subtle nuances and delicate detail. His approach is in keeping with the French musical aesthetic: elegant and rational, dealing with sentiment rather than literal sensation. He was able to capture the entire poetic mood of each poem he set and to create an aura around it with his musical setting. Dans la fôret de septembre, Op. 85, No. 1 (1902) poem by Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) This touching poem symbolizes the onset of old age. Mendès was among the founders of a literary magazine, La Revue fantaisiste, which published many poems of the Parnassian poets. Fauré’s musical style perfectly suited this style of poetry: elegance of style, richness of rhyme, regularity and symmetry of rhythm. The Parnassians avoided the excessively romantic and aimed for “art-for-art’s sake.” Fauré was nearly sixty years old when he composed this mélodie, and his reaction to this poem is beautifully poignant. The words describe the poet’s reflective walk through a quiet, somber forest, capturing the chill of mortality and the overall mood of the turning point of life. The ancient forest, sensing a kindred spirit, provides the walker with a sign of friendship and understanding. Fauré set this contemplative poem in a rich harmonic musical texture with a vocal line that borders on quasi-recitative-like shapes. The solemn thoughts of old age call forth a melancholy, but it is a subtle melancholy. It is almost hymn-like in the fusion of words, emotions, and musical texture. This mélodie may be considered as marking the threshold to the final period of Fauré’s compositions. Accompagnement, Op. 85, No. 3 (1902) poem by Albert Victor Samain (1858-1900) This mélodie is a beautiful barcarolle–a nighttime scene, silvery and hazy, alluring but unreal. The image of the poet rowing on the lake is reflected in the musical texture. Fauré had a lifelong fascination with water imagery in music; this poem offers a little reel of unfolding pictures of a moonlight journey a dark lake. The words “dans le rêve” tell us that this is all a dream. This is a rarely sung Fauré mélodie that yields great rewards for the performer. Chanson, Op. 94 (1906) poem by Henri di Régnier (1864-1936) This poem has a gentle charm and a calm simplicity. It is the last of Fauré’s madrigals that include delicate love songs such as “Lydia,” and “Clair de lune.” It has a wonderful fluidity that is a perfect foil for the poetic images The text is a simple set of variations on one theme: nothing on earth has any meaning unless the beloved somehow touches it. Fauré’s reaction to the words called forth a musical setting of delicate transparency and limited range. It is not well known; like “Le Don silencieux,” “Chanson” was published as a single song and therefore not widely disseminated. It is an example of exquisitely planned musical economy, and definitely belongs in Fauré’s third period of musical compositions. Le Don silencieux, Op. 92 (1906) poem by Marie Closset (1875-1952), under the pseudonym Jean Dominique Here is another little known Fauré song, a rarity because it was published separately and was never included in any of the Fauré recueils. The poem has a gentle melancholy–the plea of a timid lover, a mixture of hope and imagined disappointment. The words are tender and flowing, but the overall mood is one of unrelieved sadness. This song marks the beginning of Fauré’s third compositional period, which includes the cycles La Chanson d’Eve, Le Jardin clos, Mirages, and L’Horizon chimérique. Writing of this mélodie in a letter to his wife, Fauré said, It does not in the least resemble any of my previous works, nor anything that I am aware of; I am very pleased about this...It translates the words gradually as they unfold themselves; it begins, opens out, and finishes, nothing more, nevertheless it is unified. 1 NOTES: Quoted in Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Guildhall School of Music and Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2009), 291. Quotation from Jean-Michel Nectoux, Gabriel Fauré: A Musical Life, trans. Roger Nichols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 304. This is a translation of Fauré’s letter to his wife of 17 August 1906. BACK TO TOP REYNALDO HAHN (1875-1947) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan by birth, came to Paris with his family at age four and made a brilliant career. In addition to his career as a composer and singer, he was director of the Paris Opéra, music critic for the newspaper Figaro, and conductor of the Salzburg Festival. He was enough of a scholar to edit some of the works of Rameau. He maintained close friendships throughout his life with actress Sarah Bernhardt and writer Marcel Proust. During the Belle époque, French mélodie was at the height of its development. Hahn was a habitué of the most fashionable salons, where he was in demand as a performer. On these occasions, he usually sang and played his own accompaniment, often with a cigarette dangling from his lips. The art of singing was one of his major passions, and he wrote three books on singing (Du chant, Thèmes varies, and L’oreille au guet), as well as a memoir of Sarah Bernhardt. Hahn’s songs are models of French restraint–devoid of overt display, with beautiful melodies in a modest vocal range. They reflect the style of his teacher, Jules Massenet. Hahn composed approximately ninety-five works for solo voice: eighty-four mélodies, five English songs to texts of Robert Louis Stevenson, and six Italian songs in the Venetian dialect. After 1912, Hahn composed in larger forms: opera, operetta, and film music. Perhaps his most famous work is his operetta Ciboulette (1923), which is still performed. À Chloris (1916) poem by Théophile de Viau (1590-1626) “À Chloris” is No. 14 in Deuxième volume de vingt mélodies, the last major publication of Hahn’s songs during his lifetime. In many of his later songs, he turned to a deliberately archaic style. “À Chloris” features an elegant vocal line above a piano texture that features Baroque musical characteristics; it is its own piece, with ornamented melody and chaconne-like bass. Vocal line and piano piece are woven into a musical tapestry that is both declarative and intimate. Poet Théophile de Viau was considered one of the most influential libertin poets during Louis XIII’s reign. The libertins’ verses had a unique charm that is instantly appealing, but somewhat artificial. Despite this, de Viau’s love poetry is not bland, but full of suggestive passion and elegant wit. BACK TO TOP ARTHUR HONEGGER (1892-1955) Arthur Honegger composed over forty mélodies for voice and piano. Taken as a whole, they are diverse and imaginative. For his texts, he favored contemporary poets such as Jean Cocteau, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Claudel, and Paul Fort. He also chose to set unrelated poems by a single poet, such as his Poesies (Cocteau) and Alcools (Apollinaire). Poetry with strong imagery appealed to the dramatist in his personality. For Honegger, as for most successful mélodie composers, the word provides the starting place. He is quoted as saying: For me, the music a song is always dependent upon the poetic model. It must join so closely with the poetry, that they become inseparable and one can picture the poem in wholly musical terms. This is not to say that the music becomes subservient. It must be so crafted that it can stand on its own merits, playable without the text, logical and complete. 1 Born of Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, Arthur Honegger initially studied for two years at the Zurich Conservatory, but enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d’Indy. Some of his more familiar large vocal works include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (King David), composed in 1921 and still in the choral repertoire; and his dramatic oratorio of 1935, Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the stake), with text by Paul Claudel, considered to be one of his finest works. Between the world wars, he composed nine ballets and three vocal stage works, among works in other genres. His total compositional catalog is an impressive list of music: orchestral works, chamber music, concertos, ballets, operas, operettas, and oratorios. Widely known as a train enthusiast, he was passionately interested in locomotives, to which he attributed almost human characteristics. His “mouvement symphonique,” Pacific 231, gained him early acclaim in 1923. Honegger’s musical style is a fascinating mixture of impressionistic effects peppered with penetrating dissonances. He had a fondness for mixing tonalities and using modality. His compositions for the voice display an eclectic focus of coloristic harmonies and architectural clarity. He was a member of Les Six, but unlike most of that group, did not share their overwhelming reaction against German romanticism. Honegger’s musical style is fuller and more serious than his colleagues. He and Darius Milhaud were close friends. Honegger’s generous body of song has proved of enduring interest to contemporary performers. His was a distinctive voice in the vocal music of the twentieth-century French mélodie. Trois Psaumes (1940-41) from the Huguenot Psalter Psaumes XXXIV and CXL translated by Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605) Psaume CXXXVIII translated by Clément Marot (1496-1544) The spirit of Bach shines in the first psaume, “Psalm 34,” in which a chant-like vocal line alternates with a gently moving episodic keyboard part. This call and response continues until the last three vocal phrases, when the vocal line merges with the instrumental texture in a psalm of praise. The second song is “Psalm 140,” “ô Dieu donne-moi la déliverance de cet homme pernicieux” (O God, deliver me from this evil man). Honegger’s biographer, Harry Halbreich, suggests that the “evil man” who was oppressing Europe in those last days of 1940 might be the reason for Honegger’s text choice. This piece was composed before the first and third songs. Its emotional mood peaks with the chorale tune “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” 2 The last song in the set, “Psalm 138,” has the Latin title “Confiteor tibi, Domine” (I thank thee, O Lord) and is a paraphrase by Clément Marot, one of the greatest of the French Renaissance poets. It contains a familiar chorale tune, which is used in canon between voice and piano. NOTES: Arthur Canter and Rachel Joselson, Liner notes, The Songs of Arthur Honegger and Jacques Leguerney. Rachel Joselson, Réne Lecuona , piano. Albany Records, TROY691, 2004. Harry Halbreich, trans. Roger Nichols, Arthur Honegger (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999), 165. BACK TO TOP JACQUES LEGUERNEY (1906-1997) Most of Jacques Leguerney’s sixty-eight mélodies were composed and published from 1940 to 1964. Many were commissioned and premiered by French baritone Gérard Souzay, his sister, soprano Geneviève Touraine, and pianist Jacqueline Bonneau. Early songs are comparable in mood and style with Ravel or Roussel (who encouraged Leguerney’s composition); later songs have been compared to those of his contemporary, Poulenc. Leguerney writes virtuoso piano parts–often dramatic, and with such an individual sense of harmonic style and color that Pierre Bernac reportedly described them as “mélodies de pianist.” 1 When asked about Leguerney’s songs, Gérard Souzay wrote, “How does one describe this music which is, at the same time, classic and modern? It is pure, but colorfully nuanced; it speaks to the heart as well as the mind–at times calm at times witty–wise, yet sensual...” 2 Many of Leguerney’s songs deal with themes of love and nature, expressing a huge range of emotions from deeply felt meditation to wild, ribald humor. Leguerney stopped composing in 1964, and his songs became neglected. The quality of Leguerney’s text setting, lyrical beauty, and harmonic innovations all call for his songs to be better known and more widely performed. Jacques Leguerney was drawn to the work of Renaissance poets, notably Ronsard. There are eight collections titled Poèmes de la Pléaide, representing settings of sixteenth and seventeenth-century French poetry and totaling thirty-two songs. Additionally, there are cycles and other collections [for a complete listing of Leguerney’s songs, see Dibbern, Kimball, and Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney]. 3 They may be thought of as the last in the great mainstream of twentieth-century French song. La Caverne d’écho (1954) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 7 poem by Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594-1661) Dedication: Josiane and Jean Cier. First performance: Bernard Kruysen, baritone; Jean-Charles Richard, pianist. 29 May 1965, Radio France Culture. Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, wrote poetry of great descriptive power, and his use of language set him apart from the other seventeenth-century poets. He was also an adept musician and skillful lute player, writing verses that often describe musical sounds linked to visual images. The poem takes place in a dark cave, home of the nymph, Echo; it is a charmed place, absolutely still and peaceful. The poet’s lute resounds inside the cavern as he tries to soothe the inconsolable Echo, who mourns for her lover Narcissus. Leguerney creates the grotto’s mysterious resonance with bitonality. Piano figures illustrate the strumming of the lute. The text contains many sounds with the consonant “r.” The rolling quality of this speech sonority re-creates the cavern’s resonance. The closing measures of the mélodie produce a striking effect as the singer’s voice echoes eerily in the cavern, blending with the piano’s resonance and creating a remarkably realistic echo. À son page (1944) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 2 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Gérard Souzay. First performance: Gérard Souzay, baritone; Jacqueline Robin (Bonneau). 3 May 1945, Salle Gaveau, Paris. This is a lusty scene with four characters: a nobleman tipsy from drink, his page, and two women, Jeanne and Barbe. Carpe diem is the theme here. The singer philosophizes on this idea while enjoying his wine and the tender companionship of the two beautiful women. Leguerney evokes the crackling staccato of a stylized harpsichord with rhythmic accents in the piano. The text is brilliantly set with jagged vocal lines and driving rhythms that illustrate the singer’s intoxication. It ends with Leguerney’s repetition of the last poetic line and the addition of nonsense syllables which fit beautifully into the imagery and mood of Ronsard’s colorful characters. Je me lamente (1943) from Poèmes de la Pléiade, Volume 1 poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) Dedicated to Geneviève Touraine. First performance: Paul Derenne, tenor; Jeanne Blancard, pianist. 29 March 1944, Salle de l’Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris. This is one of Leguerney’s most beautiful songs, setting Pierre de Ronsard’s text from his collection of love poems for Marie Dupin, a country girl from a small village in southern France. She was half his age and probably represented the youth he constantly pursued. It has been suggested that the Marie in question was probably Marie de Clèves, passionately adored by Henri III. 4 Leguerney called this mélodie a constant crescendo from beginning to end. 5 Ronsard’s anguish is captured with a texture of stark chords, crowned by a regal and sustained vocal line. As the song progresses, the poet’s anguish is embodied in a more expansive texture, bidding Marie a happy resting place near God or in the Elysian fields. NOTES: Liner notes by Mary Dibbern. Mélodies sur poèmes de la Renaissance (Jacques Leguerney).Harmonia Mundi France. LP recording HMC 1171. Letter to the author. Quoted in Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun. Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001), 3. Ibid., 289-295. Ibid., 69. See note 20. Ibid., 70. BACK TO TOP OLIVIER MESSIAEN (1908-1992) Olivier Messiaen was born in 1908 in Avignon, France, into a literary family. He grew up around words and absorbed their shapes, colors and sounds naturally. His father, Pierre Messiaen, was a well-known translator of Shakespeare, and his mother, Cécile Sauvage, was a poet. As a youngster, before beginning to compose music, he had an especially perceptive ear attuned to the unique prosody of the French language. Early in his compositional career, he published a book titled Technique de mon langage musical (1944). About his musical setting of words, Jane Manning observes: ...the syllables themselves create a glittering mosaic of sonorities and subtle resonances, in addition to their actual meaning (many of the poems do not translate at all satisfactorily). The composer’s awareness of the minutiae of verbal enunciations and articulations is miraculous. Each vocal sound can be precisely placed as intended, all dynamics are scrupulously plotted, and the performer’s involvement and intimate connection to the music is enhanced by the sensual nature of words projection... 1 He often used stained glass to explain his music. When viewed from a distance, the myriad details blend into a single entity, whose purpose is to dazzle the listener. Understanding is not necessary, feeling is the prime requisite. The music of Olivier Messiaen is a skillfully designed and unique language, with meaning and form kept separate. Its meaning is unchangeable, harkening back to Gregorian chant, culminating in instruments that are able to prolong sound (organ, strings, or the ondes Martenot). Messiaen’s musical language is defined by its rhythms and tone colors. His uncanny instinct for associating sound with color produced works unique in their concept of the combination of sounds. He said that when he heard or read music, his mind’s eye saw colors that move with the music; he sensed these colors, and at times he precisely indicated their arrangements in his scores. His fascination with birdsong was lifelong; he referred to himself as an ornithologist and tracked birds and their songs all over the world. He considered their resonances as songs and not merely sounds. He notated these on manuscript paper and they found their way into his music. Trois mélodies (1930) poems by Olivier Messiaen, Cécile Sauvage (1883-1927) This little cycle of songs is Messiaen’s first recognized work for voice and piano. The songs are modest in length and not typical of Messiaen’s later style, but show influences of late Fauré and Duparc in the overall musical texture. There is only one song in his vocal compositions in which Messiaen set the poetry of another poet. It is found in this cycle, which uses the text of his mother, the poet Cécile Sauvage, who died three years before the composition of this work. The three movements form a warm and delicate little triptych. Two of Messiaen’s own poems stand on either side of the poem by Cécile Sauvage, throwing that charming little poem into high relief. “Pourquoi?” introduces a litany of the pleasures of nature: birdsong, the unfolding seasons, and water images. The poet becomes emotional, asking why all these bring him no joy. “La Sourire,” the shortest song of the set, is a beautiful microcosm of intimate and spiritual understanding between two people. It is a delicate example of musical economy and word setting in a quasi-recitative style. The last song, “La fiancée perdue,” offers fleeting hints of Messiaen’s cycle to come, Poèmes pour Mi–most specifically, the final song. Here, the poet prays for divine blessing on the soul of the “fiancée” in the title. The fervent incantation illuminates and affirms man’s connection to a higher authority. Examining the poetic content of the three texts, we are struck by the images that underlie the words: the emotional outburst “pourquoi,” (why?), perhaps questioning the death of Cécile, followed by Cécile’s tender affirmation of love, and finally, the prayer asking for Divine grace and the blessing of the soul of the departed. NOTES: Jane Manning, “The Songs and Song Cycles,” in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter Hill (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 107. BACK TO TOP DARIUS MILHAUD (1892-1974) Darius Milhaud was probably the most prolific composer of the group known as Les Six (Francis Poulenc, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Milhaud). The group was unified by friendship rather than a single musical style. Championed by influential writer Jean Cocteau and composer Erik Satie, Les Six often presented their works at the same concerts and met with great regularity–often at Milhaud’s house–to make music and exchange ideas. Louis Durey observed that it was the wide diversity in their personalities and musical styles that gave the group its rich depth and permitted its development. Embodied in the credo of their musical thought was relative sparseness of texture and clarity. Turn-of-the-century France offered popular entertainments that drew the French to an environment of merry-go-rounds, shooting galleries, outdoor concerts, circuses, and a jumble of excitement. Milhaud was fascinated by Parisian street life, and could hear the sounds of the Montmartre fair from his apartment. Often on their group outings, Les Six went together to the Cirque de Médrano to see the Fratellinis, a famous family of clowns of that day. Milhaud observed that their acts were worthy of the Commedia dell’arte. 1 Trois Poèmes de Jean Cocteau, Op. 59 (1920) poems by Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) Trois poèmes de Jean Cocteau is like lyric fragments. The small-range vocal lines have a sparse lyricism–one of emotional mood rather than overt melody. The little mélodies are skillful studies in brevity. These match Cocteau’s rather enigmatic poems that exemplify the style termed dépouillé (stripped to the essentials), his aesthetic creed. Milhaud dedicated the songs to Satie. The three miniatures are a colorful kaleidoscope of the circus and the outdoor fairs that entranced the French during this period. “Fumée” describes the equestrienne of the Cirque Médrano atop a horse, jumping through hoops, captured in Toulouse-Lautrec’s familiar painting titled “L’écuyère au Cirque Fernando (1888); “Fête de Bordeaux” is a description of the merry-go-round at the Bordeaux fair; and “Fête de Montmartre” evokes the nighttime boats and sailors, possibly having to do with a game involving camouflaged ships found at the Montmartre fair. Milhaud infuses stylistic and melodic elements of folk songs and children’s tunes into the tiny pieces, tying the innate excitement of these popular destinations to simple, childlike reactions. NOTES: Laurence Davies, The Gallic Muse (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1967), 164. BACK TO TOP FRANCIS POULENC (1899-1963) Francis Poulenc’s 150 mélodies form the largest body of songs to be added to French vocal literature in the twentieth century. Poulenc’s flair for the dramatic, combined with his superb skill in mixing poetry and music, produced songs that singers find immensely gratifying, not only for their musical value, but for their heightened sense of drama. Poulenc’s mélodies reflect concern and feeling for declamation, inflection, breathing, and above all, show extraordinary warmth of feeling for the human voice. He was fond of saying, “J’aime la voix humaine!” The sophistication of Poulenc’s songs spring from their poetic inspirations. Poulenc was quite knowledgeable about poetry, and chose his texts carefully. His gift of divining the inner life of the texts he set produced songs that do more than merely illustrate the poems. His gift for melody is at the very heart of all his songs and seems to assert itself naturally in shaping the color, weight, and meaning of the texts he set. Ce doux petit visage (1938) poem by Paul éluard (1895-1952) Paul Eluard was one of Poulenc’s three main poets. This is a beautiful introduction to Eluard’s poetry, lyrical and passionately intense. The simplicity of Poulenc’s setting allows the poem to shine. It is one of Poulenc’s tiny gems, and he admitted his partiality to the short song. Eluard’s skill at evoking nostalgia and melancholy are seen here, linked to lost youth. The mélodie is dedicated to the memory of Raymonde Linossier, Poulenc’s most intimate childhood friend, who influenced his literary taste and musical tendencies. He said: “I have a great liking for this short song. Raymonde Linossier was my best advisor for the music of my youth. How many times, during the years since her death, I would have liked to have had her opinion on this or the other of my works.” 1 La Grenouillère (1938) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) “La Grenouillère” is an outstanding example of Poulenc’s romantic lyricism. This is a text by Guillaume Apollinaire describing the Ile de Croissy, an island in the Seine on the outskirts of Paris, frequented by artists and their models, and celebrated in paintings by Monet, Manet, and Renoir. “The Froggery” was a restaurant on the island. The overall images of happy days that cannot be relived can be seen in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s paintings Les Déjeuner des canotiers (The Boatman’s Luncheon), or La Grenouillère. In this lament for boating parties on the Seine, vocal phrases are sustained and languid, floating over a slowly rocking piano accompaniment. The lazy piano figures mirror the empty tethered boats rocking on the water, bumping against each other, and give expression to the sweet melancholy of the poet’s words. Montparnasse (1945) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Apollinaire’s poem is dated 1912. Poulenc writes in his journal of songs that it took him four years to complete “Montparnasse,” almost phrase by phrase, and that he had no regrets about the length of time it took because “it is one of my best songs.” 2 It is a sentimental and heartfelt tribute to Paris. Both Apollinaire and Poulenc loved the city and it played a continuing role in their work. “Montparnasse” is about the idyllic artistic existence lived at the edge of Paris. Poulenc wrote in his diary: “Let us imagine this Montparnasse all at once discovered by Picasso, Braque, Modigliani, Apollinaire.” 3 The mélodie has a carefree nonchalance about it; it is not sad, but thoughtful– a beautiful blend of poetic and musical lyricism. Poulenc’s vocal and harmonic textures are full of surprising harmonic details that bind this song–which he composed in fragments–together into a touching and expressive picture of Paris in the early years of the twentieth century. Bleuet (1939) poem by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Guillaume Apollinaire was one of Poulenc’s preferred poets. This is a wartime poem that Apollinaire penned in 1917 in Paris in convalescence after a head injury; both Apollinaire and Poulenc served in World War II. There are several word plays at work here. “Bleuet” was the nickname for French soldiers in World War I, because their uniforms were blue, like the color of a little cornflower, which is a “bleuet.” Also, “Un bleu” was the term used for a raw recruit. “Bleuet” is one of Poulenc’s most moving songs– agonizing in its emotional content yet noble in its message. It is a quiet and private moment in which a twenty-year-old boy who does not yet know all that life can be, is characterized–and addressed–by the poet in a sweetly serious speech. Poulenc wrote that for him, the key to the poem were the words, “It is five o’clock and you would know how to die.” 4 This song is simple, intimate, and poignant. Les Chemins de l’amour (1940) poem by Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) Poulenc composed this valse chantée as incidental music for Léocadia, a play by Jean Anouilh. Within the play, the song was described as a pseudo Viennese waltz, and functioned as a leitmotiv in the plot. Sung by Yvonne Printemps, one of France’s most celebrated musical theatre stars, “Les Chemins de l’amour” became a popular success. It embodies the relaxed elegance of a self-styled Viennese waltz style, encased in one of Poulenc’s haunting melodies. Banalités (1940) poems by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) Banalités is not a cycle, but a group of five songs. The poems have no connection with each other; however, their order provides a well-constructed recital group. They may be performed separately. The work is one of Poulenc’s most popular vocal works, and deservedly so. Poulenc chose contrasting poems, placing them so that the collection begins briskly and ends with lyrical gravity. “Chanson d’Orkenise” is Poulenc’s title for the poem contained in the strange mixture of prose and poetry that Apollinaire called Onirocritique. Orkenise is a road in Autun leading to the Roman gate of the same name. The musical setting has the feeling of a popular folk song. The narrator sings of a tramp leaving the city and a carter who is entering it - one leaving his heart there, one bringing his heart to be married. There is a word in the poem with a double meaning: “grise” can be translated as “gray” or “tipsy.” The merry quality of the song opens the set with gaiety, but both Apollinaire and Poulenc offer a little food for thought. “Hôtel” is a poem that immediately represented for Poulenc a hotel room in Montparnassse, where the idle poet wants only to bask in the sun’s warmth and smoke. Pierre Bernac referred to it as “the laziest song ever written.” 5 The piano figures are fashioned of Poulenc’s luxuriant chromatic harmonies, stacked as if to cushion the lethargy of the singer. “Fagnes de Wallonie” is set in the gloomy, desolate uplands of the Ardennes with a terrain of vast heaths, twisted trees, and peat bogs, swept by winds of considerable force. Its gloomy setting complements the melancholy mood of the poet. Poulenc’s spiky musical setting is a whirlwind that sweeps from beginning to end in a turbulent texture that demands precise articulation from singer and pianist. Sandwiched between Songs 3 and 5 is a tiny bonbon, “Voyage à Paris.” It resembles a little commercial jingle about Paris–“which one day love must have created”–an invitation to the pleasures of that beautiful city, away from “the dreary countryside.” Poulenc sprinkles his quicksilver setting–a valse-musette–with indications of “amiable” and “avec charme.” The composer referred to it as having “deliciously stupid lines...Anything that concerns Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of music.” 6 The cycle concludes with “Sanglots”, one of Apollinaire’s finest poems about the universality of lost love, a theme that Poulenc matches with exquisite modulations in a setting that embodies the essence of the words. The vocal lines are eloquently lyrical. The poem is difficult to understand because of the juxtaposition of the main narrative and the interior “asides,” that in effect form a poem within a poem. 7 The song has an elegant serenity that culminates in a stunning climactic point at the words: “Est mort d’amour ou c’est tout comme/ Est mort d’amour et le voici.” The ending lines of the song sustain the profoundly calm mood, bringing Banalités to its close. La Courte Paille (1960) poems by Maurice Carême (1899-1978) The last song cycle Poulenc composed was La Courte paille, on seven poems of Belgian poet Maurice Carême. Poulenc composed the songs for soprano Denise Duval, creator of leading roles in his three operas, hoping that she would sing them to her young son. Poulenc considered the mélodies very poetic and whimsical; unfortunately, Duval disliked the music and never did sing the cycle. Poulenc asked Carême to provide an overall title for the work and requested permission to change the titles of several selected poems: the original title of “Quelle aventure!” is “Une puce et l’éléphant”; “Le Reine de cœur” is “Vitres de lune”; “Le carafon” is “La carafe et le carafon.” For the cycle’s title, Carême chose La Courte Paille (The Short Straw), referring to drawing lots by the method of a short straw. Poulenc was delighted, saying the title symbolized his little musical game exactly. He also wrote in his diary, “They must be sung tenderly; that is the surest way to touch the heart of a child.” 8 The cycle is full of child-like innocence, whimsy and imagination, with a few shadowy undertones. The first song, “Le Sommeil,” is a beautiful lullaby to a restless child who cannot go to sleep, tossing and turning in his small bed. He seems ill, crying and perspiring, but hopefully will finally surrender to slumber. In “Quelle aventure!” the child describes an absurd happening: he saw a flea driving a carriage with a small elephant in it. The story grows more bizarre but the rhythmic pace never wavers, careening to the end of the song when the child wonders how on earth he’ll ever be able to persuade “Mama” that it really happened. The verses are witty, yet the shrieks of “Mon Dieu!” are laced with a feeling of childish terror. “La Reine du cœur” is a beautiful, languid melody that paints a picture of the mysterious Queen of Hearts, beckoning to visitors from her frosty castle, where she reigns over a court of lovers, including the young dead. In “Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu...,” the child is chided “on all sides” about studying. The title of the song presents the French vowels, and the text contains words that make their plural with an “x” (“pou, chou, genou, hibou”). The formidable cat of the poem’s opening lines is none other than that tricky feline Puss-in-Boots! The entire song is a little tongue-twister, an exercise in diction and accuracy. “Les anges musiciens” are none other than the school children staying home on Thursday, the half-day school holiday in France in Poulenc’s time, practicing Mozart on their harps, just like good little angel musicians should do. “Le carafon” is a crazy little story of a carafe that longs for a baby carafe (carafon) just like the giraffe at the zoo, who has a girafon. This is a ridiculous rhyming game like those that children love to play. The text is full of whimsical characters: the carafe, a giraffe, a sorcerer astride a phonograph, Merlin, and finally, a carafon. “Lune d’Avril” is another lullaby, very slow and otherworldly, which serves as an epilogue. Bound together in a musical texture that features a syncopated pedal point, it is filled with enchanted images the child wishes to dream about: a land of joy, light, and flowers where all guns are silent. The ending leaves the listener suspended in a mood of unfinished magic. La Courte Paille is the last vocal music Poulenc composed. NOTES: Quoted in Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1977), 125. Francis Poulenc, Journal de mes mélodies, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, 1985), 75. Ibid., 75. Ibid., 57. Bernac, 72. Poulenc, 67. The English translation of “Sanglots” has parentheses that delineate the “asides” so that both “poems” may be seen. These may be found in Pierre Bernac’s books Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, page 75, or The Interpretation of French Song, pages 284-85 Poulenc, 109. BACK TO TOP MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) The songs of Maurice Ravel represent a transition between the mature mélodies of Debussy and the vocal literature that followed, notably the songs of Les Six. Debussy dominated the French musical scene from the turn of the century until his death in 1918. It was Ravel who was regarded as the leading musical spokesman for France following World War I. He was a skillful craftsman and his songs have a sense of evenness of rhythmic structure and flow that call for scrupulous execution. The fusion of music and text into a logical whole was of utmost importance to him. He composed elegant and subtle mélodies, using classical phrase structure. His melodic phrases often tend toward modality. His songs range from those with a folk-like style to more to those that are more speech-like, and those that encompass a melodic romanticism. He was precise in his thought and his scoring, and scrupulous in his musical execution. His music encompassed some of the fascinating influences of the post-Wagnerian era. Ravel’s musical contributions were of utmost importance to this exciting and new era in French cultural history. He made notable contributions to musical literature for the piano, the French art song, opera, chamber music, orchestral literature, and the ballet. Sur l’herbe (1907) poem by Paul Verlaine (1833-1896) This mélodie is Ravel’s only setting of Verlaine. It has often been suggested that this poem was probably inspired by Watteau’s painting L’île enchantée. There is also a reference to a famous eighteenth-century dancer, Marie-Anne Cuppi, known as (La) Camargo, who was immortalized on canvas by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The scene is an outside gathering, elegant and artificial. A number of people are there, chief among them, a licentious abbé, slightly tipsy from a bit too much Cyprian wine. He exchanges a few disconnected gallantries with the ladies–innocent conversations on the surface, but sensuous in undertone. The conversation is disconnected; we do not know exactly who is speaking. Ravel shapes very flexible vocal phrases, in keeping with the abbé’s intoxicated state, underscored with graceful piano figures that evoke an eighteenth-century dance. In a letter to Jean-Aubrey, Ravel commented on “Sur l’herbe”: “In this piece, as in the Histoires naturelles, the impression must be given that one is almost not singing. A bit of preciosity is found there which is indicated moreover by the text and the music.” 1 Noël des jouets (1905) poem by the composer This is the only solo song for which Ravel wrote the text. It describes a Christmas manger scene, replete with the Virgin and Christ-child, animals, and angels. It embodies Ravel’s delight with tiny mechanical toys and figures, and his fascination with the unspoiled world of child-like experience. His genius for text painting is displayed in the delightful mélodie. The mechanical toys come to life in the piano figures. Ravel’s charming text creates the images around and over the crèche, with not a word wasted. Ravel commented that the music is “clear and plain, like the mechanical toys of the poem.” 2 This little song foreshadows other Ravel settings of make-believe, beginning with the song cycle Histoires naturelles and culminating with his opera L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The music of menacing dog Belzébuth foreshadows the music of the Beast in the Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère lOye). Rêves (1927) poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) The poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue has been described as reflecting the union of dream and memory. This mélodie has a tender lyricism within a sparse musical texture. The text is fashioned of a series of miniature images that pass by rather quickly, unrelated, like the images found in dreams. For all their differences, they have a simplicity about them that seems timeless, existing together, as the poet says, “in a vague countryside.” When the dreamer finally awakens, the little fleeting pictures “die quietly.” The piano postlude perpetuates the dream state, creating an ethereal little microcosm that continues to draw the dreamer to it. Ronsard à son âme (1924) poem by Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) In his Abrégé de l’art poétique français (1565) Pierre de Ronsard advocated the union of poetry and music, and Renaissance composers frequently set his poems. 3 In this strikingly simple mélodie, Ronsard speaks to his soul, calling it by a series of diminutives: little soul, dainty little one, sweet little one. Ravel uses a series of parallel fifths in the piano figures to invoke a Renaissance mood. This is Ronsard’s last poem, and Ravel’s last adaptation of Renaissance poetry. Ravel’s setting recalls the elegance of his early mélodie, “D’Anne qui me jecta de la neige,” to a poem of Clément Marot. Manteau de fleurs (1903) poem by Paul Barthélemy Jeulin (1863-1936) The poem notes everything in the garden that is pink–all the flowers that will become a beautiful cloak to complement the beauty of the lady of the poem. Ravel usually had very sophisticated taste in choosing texts; this particular poem is an unusual choice. It is a simple text, somewhat banal, but Ravel’s shimmering musical texture imparts a dramatic character for each flower in the poem. The overall piano texture suggests orchestral colors. The last section of the mélodie changes course slightly, with the piano harmonies creating a slightly wistful mood. Clearly, Ravel lavished a beautiful musical setting on a rather ordinary set of words. Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (1932-33) [Medium/Low Voice edition only] poems by Paul Morand (1888-1976) This miniature cycle was Ravel’s last vocal work. His musical portrait of the noble Spanish knight, Don Quixote, is embodied in three mélodies, all based on characteristic Spanish or Basque dance rhythms: (1) the guajira, alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; (2) the zorzica, a Basque dance in quintuple meter; and (3) the jota, a lively triple-metered Spanish dance. “Chanson Romanesque” presents the chivalrous idealist Don Quixote, confidently promising to rearrange everything in nature to his lady Dulcinea’s liking in order to win her favor. Dulcinea is in reality a poor farm girl, but the Don’s illusion will not be shaken. He remains authoritative and focused in his quest for her love. “Chanson épique” is Quixote’s reverent prayer to Saint Michael and Saint George, beseeching them to bless his sword and his Lady. Ravel creates a beautifully sustained and prayerful vocal line over a simple accompaniment. “Chanson à boire” is a exuberant drinking song. Although the Don’s tippling has made him overly boisterous, he never oversteps the bounds of his noble bearing. His robust laughter is heard in the piano figures and even a hiccup intrudes between “lorsque j’ai” and “lorsque j’ai bu.” NOTES: Maurice Ravel, in a letter to Jean-Aubrey written in September, 1907. Quoted in Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Dover Publications, 1991), 165-66. Quoted in Orenstein, 161. Orenstein, 192. BACK TO TOP ALBERT ROUSSEL (1869-1937) In 1894 Albert Roussel left a highly successful career as a naval officer to pursue music. After completing his studies, he became professor of counterpoint at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Satie and Varèse were among his students. Roussel was one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period. He composed almost forty mélodies as well as chamber music, ballets, and operas. His style is eclectic but highly individual. Early works show the influence of Vincent d’Indy, works dating from 1910 to 1920 exhibit influences of Debussy and Ravel, but he turned to neoclassicism in his later compositions. His love for the sea was almost a spiritual attraction and continued to influence his music throughout his career. He had a fascination for distant places; his extended tour of Southeast Asia in 1909 had a tremendous influence on his composition. “Sarabande” and “Cœur en peril” are mélodies to texts of René Chalupt, a close friend. They are found in op. 20 and 50, respectively. Roussel’s overall musical catalogue is not extensive, but its quality is of an extremely high level, and his vocal writing in particular contains some mélodies of great delicacy and style, squarely in the French tradition. For Roussel, the word held primacy in his mélodies, being both transformed by its musical setting and merging with it to create a perfect union. Commenting on the quality of Roussel’s songs, composer Charles Koechlin is quoted as saying: “The sense of austerity pervading them, stemming simply from the composer’s natural reserve, heightens their expressiveness and further embellishes them; in language and content they are absolutely personal. This collection of songs is one which will last because its essence is undying sensitivity.” 1 Sarabande (1919) from Deux mélodies, Op. 20, No. 2 poem by René Chalupt This is surely one of Roussel’s most delicate and magical creations. His writing for the piano is particularly outstanding, placing Chalupt’s poem in an overall texture of elegance and veiled sensuality. There is an Oriental delicacy in Roussel’s musical evocation of the fluttering doves, feathers drifting into a pool, and the gentle drift of chestnut blossoms onto bare flesh. Cœur en péril (1933-34) from Deux mélodies, Op. 50, No. 1 poem by René Chalupt This mélodie is much different in mood–witty and flirtatious. It is the narrative of a young man eager to convince his ladylove of his fidelity. Vocal phrases are tuneful, with a spirited piano texture of Iberian flavor. NOTES: Liner notes, Dom Angelico Surchamp, trans. Elisabeth Carroll, Roussel Mélodies, Colette Alliot-Lugaz, Mady Mesplé, Kurt Ollmann, José Van Dam; Dalton Baldwin, Patrick Gallois. EMI Digital. CDS 7492712, 1987 BACK TO TOP ERIK SATIE (1866-1925) Erik Satie wrote very few songs and most of them date from late in his life. The eccentric father figure of the French avant-garde of the twentieth century had a wildly independent spirit that found its way into his musical compositions. Throughout his life, he kept a great deal of childlike inquisitiveness and innocence. He was a curious personality of unconventional habits whose sense of the absurd and whimsy permeated both his life and his music. Quintessential Satie compositions are laconic and witty. It was Satie who named Les Nouveaux Jeunes, soon known as Les Six, and influenced the early development of the group. La Statue de bronze (1916) from Trois Mélodies poem by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) This is Satie’s first setting of the poetry of Léon-Paul Fargue, the “Bohemian poet of Paris.” Satie used Fargue’s witty verses again for Ludions. The scene is a garden game–the jeu de tonneau. A bronze frog, perched atop a cabinet with numbered chambers, grows impatient of being the target of the game where metal disks are tossed into her mouth. She dreams of being freed from her pedestal and being able to use her wide-open mouth to utter “LE MOT.” 1 She wants to be free to join the other frogs gathered near the rust-colored washhouse “blowing musical bubbles from the soapy moonlight.” But the game continues, the disks rattle through her mouth into numbered compartments and at night, insects sleep in her mouth. This mélodie can be linked musically to “La Grenouille américaine,” found in Ludions. Both songs share piano figures derived from the café-concert chanson. Ludions (1923) poems by Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947) Ludions is the last of Satie’s purely vocal works, composed two years before his death, and is perhaps his finest set of songs. It epitomizes his lifelong quest for musical simplicity and his irreverence for the intricate compositional techniques and overactive emotions of the Impressionists. Ludions is translated as “bottle imps” (a ludion is a little figure suspended in a hollow ball, which descends or rises in a vase filled with water when one presses down on the elastic membrane covering the mouth of the vase). The cycle is a kaleidoscopic set of musical miniatures, riddled with puns and illogical phrases. Fargue’s nonsensical verse complements Satie’s musical aesthetic, and the two friends’ personalities closely matched one another. All the mélodies in Ludions are short, like tiny cameos. They are colorful, saucy, fantastic, and defy translation. “Air du rat,” “La Grenouille américaine,” and “Chanson du chat” are right out of the music hall, and Satie uses with a mock-serious “tongue-in-cheek” treatment for “Spleen” and “Air du poète.” Je te veux (1902) poem by Henry Pacory (1873-?) The valse chantée, or sung waltz was a favorite of the café concerts, for which Satie composed a number of works. Café concerts were a form of Parisian popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The all-musical programs were held outside; French popular singers presented repertoire that catered to lower and middle-class audiences who came to talk, eat, drink, and observe the long informal programs, for which there was no admission charge. “Je te veux” was composed for Paulette Darty, dubbed “the Queen of the slow waltz.” It was one of her signature musical presentations for the caf’conc (café concerts), and one that Darty remained associated with throughout her career. A statuesque blonde with an ample figure, Darty was a commanding performer who kept the most boisterous of the Saturday night audiences enthralled. Lyricist Henry Pacory’s rather explicit poem was watered down at Satie’s request before the song was published. La Diva de l’Empire (1904) poem by Charles Bessat, named Numa Blès (1871-1917) The “Diva de l’Empire,” 2 one of Satie’s café-concert songs, was another work written for and performed by Paulette Darty. It was composed for a Bonnaud-Blès music-hall revue called Dévidons la Bobine (Let’s Unwind the Bobbin) that toured several seaside resort towns. The British “diva” is a femme fatale performer who enchants all who see her. The song is a syncopated cakewalk describing her seductive beauty as she struts her stuff “showing the wiggling of her legs and some pretty frilly underwear.” Interspersed at points along the way with English words: Greenaway, baby, little girl, etc. The piano provides a jaunty ragtime rhythm throughout that melds perfectly with the suggestive text. NOTES: ”Le mot” has a double meaning. It was the title of a broadsheet published by Jean Cocteau between 1914-15 and is short for “le mot de Cambronne,” a polite way of saying “merde.” Cambronne was a famous French general who replied “Merde!” when asked to surrender. In Steven Moore Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 43. Empire refers to the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London. BACK TO TOP DÉODAT DE SÉVERAC (1872-1921) Déodat de Séverac, of aristocratic lineage, was born in the Languedoc region of southwest France in Saint-Félix-Caraman (now Saint-Félix Lauragais), near Toulouse. After studies in Paris with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum, he returned home and remained there. He was a contemporary of Fauré, Debussy and Ravel, but was considered a petit maître in their company, possibly because of his return to Languedoc at the completion of his musical studies. Séverac composed piano and orchestral music, operas and songs. The culture of his native Languedoc figured prominently in his music, which is highly descriptive. He often wrote parts for regional folk music in his scores. Many considered him provincial and unsophisticated, but his music displays his skill in integrating folk elements–and often, regional folk instruments–of his native Languedoc into his works. He often referred to himself as “the peasant musician.” Influences of Debussy, Mussorgsky, and Bizet may be found in his mélodies. Although his music is rather conservative in style, Séverac fused folk elements with the musical styles of the day in a unique and individual manner. Ma poupée chérie (1914) poem by the composer Composed in 1914 (and published in 1916) for his daughter Magali and dedicated to her, this little cradlesong is probably de Séverac’s best loved and most performed mélodie. Séverac’s fresh musical setting contains just the right combination of simplicity and delightful childlike honesty. Despite the subject matter, the composer’s heartfelt poem avoids an overly cloying atmosphere. BACK TO TOP OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED: Jane Bathori, On the Interpretation of the Mélodies of Claude Debussy, transl. and with an introduction by Linda Laurent (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998). Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs, transl. by Winifred Radford (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977). Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, transl. by Winifred Radford(New York: W.W. Norton, 1978). Elaine Brody, Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope 1870-1925 (New York: George Braziller, 1987). Mary Dibbern, Carol Kimball, and Patrick Choukroun, Interpreting the Songs of Jacques Leguerney (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2001) Alan M. Gillmor, Erik Satie (New York: W.W. Norton Co., 1992). James Harding, The Ox on the Roof: Scenes from musical life in Paris in the Twenties (New York: Da Capo Press, 1986). Peter Hill, ed., The Messiaen Companion (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995). Graham Johnson, Gabriel Fauré: The Songs and their Poets (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2009) Graham Johnson and Richard Stokes, A French Song Companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Carol Kimball, Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2005). Carol Kimball and Richard Walters, eds., The French Song Anthology (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 2001). Timothy LeVan, Masters of the French Art Song (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991). Barbara Meister, Nineteenth-Century French Song (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980). Wilfrid Mellers, Francis Poulenc (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975). Nancy Perloff, Art and the Everyday: Popular Entertainment in the Circle of Erik Satie(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) Caroline Potter, Henri Dutilleux: His Life and Works (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997). Francis Poulenc, Moi et mes amis: Confidences recueilles par Stéphane Audel (Paris: La Palatine, 1963). Francis Poulenc, Diary of my Songs [Journal de mes mélodies] transl. by Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1985) Marie-Claire Rohinsky, ed., The Singer’s Debussy (New York: Pelion Press, 1987) Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Hal Leonard Online - EE2000 Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 2 Play-Along Accompaniments For Brass & Woodwinds Exercises 56 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 056. Warm-up Chorale 057. The Thunderer - Band Arrangement 058. Hill and Gully Rider - Band Arrangement 059. Shenandoah - Band Arrangement 060. Las Mananitas - Band Arrangement 061. Rondeau - Band Arrangement 062. Rock.com - Encore Band Arrangement 063. Rhythm Rap 064. Sixteenth Variatons 065. Sea Chantey 066. American Fanfare 067. Scale Study 068. Bill Bailey 069. Rhythm Rap 070. Rhythm Etude 071. Battle Stations 072. English Dance 073. Big Rock Candy Mountain 074. Essential Elements Quiz 075. Simple Song - Duet 076. Line Dance 077. Technique Trax 078. The Galway Piper 079. Manhattan Beach March 080. Sightreading Challenge 081. Rhythm Rap 082. Marching Along 083. Fanfare for Band - Trio 084. O Tannenbaum 085. S'Vivon 086. Good King Wenceslas 087. Tone Builder 088. Flexibility Study 089. Technique Trax 090. Chorale 091. Toreador Song (from Carmen) 092. La Cumparisita 093. The Yellow Rose of Texas 094. Scale Study 095. Advance Australia Fair 096. Essential Creativity 097. American Patrol 098. Aria (from Marriage of Figaro) 099. The Stars and Stripes Forever 100. Sightreading Challenge 101. Rhythm Rap 102. Lazy Day 103. Row Your Boat 104. Jolly Good Fellow 105. Chanson 106. EE Quiz: When Johnny Comes Marching Home 107. Chromatic Scale 108. Technique Trax 109. Habanera (from Carmen) 110. Chromatic Crescendo 111. Turkish March (from The Ruins of Athens) 112. The Overlander 113. Staccato Study 114. Yankee Doodle Dandy 115. Sightreading Challenge 116. Rhythm Rap 117. Three To Get Ready 118. Triplet Study 119. March (from The Nutcracker) - Duet 120. EE Quiz - Theme from Faust 121. Scale Study 122. Over the River and Through the Woods 123. Rhythm Rap 124. On the Move 125. Higher Ground 126. EE Quiz 127. The Marine's Hymn 128. D.S. March 129. Can-Can 130. Tarantella 131. Emperor Waltz 132. English Dance - Duet 133. EE Quiz - British Grenadiers 134. Nassau Bound 135. Unfinished Symphony Theme 136. Rhythm Study 137. Country Gardens 138. Joshua 139. Listen to the Mockingbird 140. Anchors Aweigh 141. Greensleeves 142. The Long Climb 143. The Blue Bells of Scotland 144. Natural Minor Scale 145. Finale from "New World Symphony" 146. Harmonic Minor Scale 147. Hungarian Dance No. 5 148. Pomp and Circumstance 149. Simple Gifts - Band Arrangement 150. Semper Fidelis - Band Arrangement 151. Danny Boy - Band Arrangement 152. Take Me Out To The Ball Game - Band Arrangement 153. Serengeti (African Rhapsody) - Band Arrangement 154. Rubank Studies - Chorale 155. Rubank Studies - Chorale 156. Rubank Studies - Chorale 157. Rubank Studies - Chorale 158. Rubank Studies - Chorale 159. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 160. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 161. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 162. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 163. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 164. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 165. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 166. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 167. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 168. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 169. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 170. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 171. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 172. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 173. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 174. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 175. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 176. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 177. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 178. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 179. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 180. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 181. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 182. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 183. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 184. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 185. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 186. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 187. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Slow tempo 188. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Fast tempo 189. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Slow tempo 190. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Fast tempo 191. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Slow tempo 192. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Fast tempo 193. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Slow tempo 194. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Fast tempo 195. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Slow tempo 196. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Fast tempo 197. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Slow tempo 198. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 2 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR BRASS & WOODWINDS EXERCISES 56 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired group and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 056. Warm-up Chorale 057. The Thunderer - Band Arrangement 058. Hill and Gully Rider - Band Arrangement 059. Shenandoah - Band Arrangement 060. Las Mananitas - Band Arrangement 061. Rondeau - Band Arrangement 062. Rock.com - Encore Band Arrangement 063. Rhythm Rap 064. Sixteenth Variatons 065. Sea Chantey 066. American Fanfare 067. Scale Study 068. Bill Bailey 069. Rhythm Rap 070. Rhythm Etude 071. Battle Stations 072. English Dance 073. Big Rock Candy Mountain 074. Essential Elements Quiz 075. Simple Song - Duet 076. Line Dance 077. Technique Trax 078. The Galway Piper 079. Manhattan Beach March 080. Sightreading Challenge 081. Rhythm Rap 082. Marching Along 083. Fanfare for Band - Trio 084. O Tannenbaum 085. S'Vivon 086. Good King Wenceslas 087. Tone Builder 088. Flexibility Study 089. Technique Trax 090. Chorale 091. Toreador Song (from Carmen) 092. La Cumparisita 093. The Yellow Rose of Texas 094. Scale Study 095. Advance Australia Fair 096. Essential Creativity 097. American Patrol 098. Aria (from Marriage of Figaro) 099. The Stars and Stripes Forever 100. Sightreading Challenge 101. Rhythm Rap 102. Lazy Day 103. Row Your Boat 104. Jolly Good Fellow 105. Chanson 106. EE Quiz: When Johnny Comes Marching Home 107. Chromatic Scale 108. Technique Trax 109. Habanera (from Carmen) 110. Chromatic Crescendo 111. Turkish March (from The Ruins of Athens) 112. The Overlander 113. Staccato Study 114. Yankee Doodle Dandy 115. Sightreading Challenge 116. Rhythm Rap 117. Three To Get Ready 118. Triplet Study 119. March (from The Nutcracker) - Duet 120. EE Quiz - Theme from Faust 121. Scale Study 122. Over the River and Through the Woods 123. Rhythm Rap 124. On the Move 125. Higher Ground 126. EE Quiz 127. The Marine's Hymn 128. D.S. March 129. Can-Can 130. Tarantella 131. Emperor Waltz 132. English Dance - Duet 133. EE Quiz - British Grenadiers 134. Nassau Bound 135. Unfinished Symphony Theme 136. Rhythm Study 137. Country Gardens 138. Joshua 139. Listen to the Mockingbird 140. Anchors Aweigh 141. Greensleeves 142. The Long Climb 143. The Blue Bells of Scotland 144. Natural Minor Scale 145. Finale from "New World Symphony" 146. Harmonic Minor Scale 147. Hungarian Dance No. 5 148. Pomp and Circumstance 149. Simple Gifts - Band Arrangement 150. Semper Fidelis - Band Arrangement 151. Danny Boy - Band Arrangement 152. Take Me Out To The Ball Game - Band Arrangement 153. Serengeti (African Rhapsody) - Band Arrangement 154. Rubank Studies - Chorale 155. Rubank Studies - Chorale 156. Rubank Studies - Chorale 157. Rubank Studies - Chorale 158. Rubank Studies - Chorale 159. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 160. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 161. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 162. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 163. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 164. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 165. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 166. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 167. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 168. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 169. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 170. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 171. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 172. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 173. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 174. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 175. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 176. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 177. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 178. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 179. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 180. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 181. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 182. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 183. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 184. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 185. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 186. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 187. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Slow tempo 188. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Fast tempo 189. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Slow tempo 190. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Fast tempo 191. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Slow tempo 192. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Fast tempo 193. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Slow tempo 194. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Fast tempo 195. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Slow tempo 196. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Fast tempo 197. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Slow tempo 198. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Fast tempo
Michael Abene | Hal Leonard Michael Abene Michael Abene is a composer, arranger, keyboard player and record producer. Michael joined the Maynard Ferguson band while still a teenager and was responsible for writing some of the most-requested arrangements, such as "Green Dolphin Street," "Airegin," "Fox Hunt," "Chicago," "Whisper Not," "Knarf" and "Cherokee." Michael produced the Grammy-winning projects "Digital Duke" featuring the Duke Ellington Orchestra and "The GRP All-Star Big Band-All Blues." He produced the Grammy-nominated "GRP All-Star Big Band" and "The GRP All-Star Big Band Live" and received nominations in the arranging category for all three big band records. Other projects he has produced are "The GRP Christmas Collection Volumes 1, 2 and 3" (Volume 1 was awarded a gold record for sales of 500,000 units), "Happy Anniversary, Charlie Brown," two projects for Billy Taylor, "... It's a matter of pride" and "Homage," "Maiden Voyage" for Nnenna Freelon plus projects for Billy Cobham, Eddie Daniels and Dave Valentin. Some of the other artists Michael has composed and arranged for are Take 6, Joe Lovano, Bireli Lagrene, Montreal fusion bassist Alain Caron, Dick Oatts, Dave Grusin, for which he received a 1998 Grammy nomination for the arrangement of "America" from "Dave Grusin Presents West Side Story," Chick Corea, Buddy Rich, Dizzy Gillespie, the Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra, Liza Minnelli, Charles Aznavour, Dave Taylor, Ronnie Cuber, Diva, the Metropole Jazz Orchestra in the Netherlands and the Carnegie Hall Jazz Band. Michael has also appeared as featured pianist and arranger/composer with the UMO Jazz Orchestra in Helsinki, WDR Big Band in Cologne, Germany, the Rotterdam Conservatory Big Band (The Netherlands), Jazz Big Band Graz (Austria), Kluvers Big Band (Denmark) and the BBC Big Band in England. Michael also has produced and arranged for many singers, from pop and crossover artists Patti Austin and B.B. King, to classic jazz artists Grady Tate, Joe Williams, Chris Connor, New York Voices and Diane Schuur. Two works of Michael's were premiered during the summer of 2000: a piece he arranged for The Metropole Jazz Orchestra for seven trombones where each trombonist contributed an original and Michael composed opening and connecting sections allowing the piece to be played as a suite. This composition was performed at the International Trombone Festival in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The second composition was an original work commissioned by The Mancini Institute, where Michael has appeared as composer-in-residence, for bass trombonist Dave Taylor entitled "Heritage: New/Old and Then Some" and performed by The Mancini Institute Orchestra and Big Band. This work has also been performed by The Manhattan School of Music Studio Jazz Orchestra and in 2004 by The Amsterdam Conservatory Orchestra and Big Band. Two new compositions by Michael premiered in 2003 were "Odyssey for Brass," commissioned and performed by The Metropole Jazz Orchestra in Tilburg, The Netherlands and "Fragmentations" performed by the Slovenian Symphony and Radio Big Band. In the fall of 2003 Michael was appointed Musical Director, Principal Composer/Arranger of the WDR Radio Big Band of Cologne, Germany. Because of the response worldwide, Michael has made his compositions and arrangements available to schools and bands and serves as a clinician, and is currently working on his own 11-piece band consisting of two trumpets, french horn, tenor and bass trombone, three reeds and rhythm section. Michael joined the faculty of Manhattan School of Music in January 1998. In 2001 Michael was instrumental in creating a course entitled "Jazz Composition and Arranging for The Studio Orchestra" and in 2003, a Doctoral in Jazz program. Michael and Jim McNeely are the Music Directors of the BMI Jazz Composers Workshop. Publications by Michael Abene
Cheryl Lavender | Hal Leonard Cheryl Lavender Cheryl Lavender, Doctor of Music Education (honoris causa), is internationally recognized as a master music educator, composer, clinician and keynote speaker. Having taught music for 37 years from elementary through university levels, Cheryl maintains an active writing/speaking schedule through Hal Leonard.  Cheryl’s 50+ music resources include games, songs, and teaching strategies. Popular titles: ROUND the World, World Partners, Beautiful Music - Beautiful Children posters, The Ultimate Music Assessment and Evaluation Kit, Making Each Minute Count, Songs of the Rainbow Children, Rhythm/Melody Flash Cards, and the popular Bingo series.  In 2016, Cheryl was awarded a DMusEd (h.c.) degree from VanderCook College of Music. She is a contributing composer for MacMillan/McGraw-Hill textbook Spotlight On Music and John Jacobson's Music Express magazine. In 2005, Cheryl received the WMEA Distinguished Service Award and the Central Michigan University Distinguished Alumni Award. In 2004, she was awarded the NEA Arts@Work $5000 grant funding the school's piano lab. In 1996, she taught in South Africa for Eisenhower Citizen Ambassadors. In 1993, Cheryl received Elmbrook School’s Outstanding Teacher Award.  Cheryl's enthusiasm for teaching music and her love for children make her one of the most sought-after clinicians in music education. Cheryl's academic background includes a music education degree from Central Michigan University and graduate work at Michigan State University, University of Wisconsin, and VanderCook College of Music. Cheryl and her husband, Paul, reside in Brookfield, WI. Publications by Cheryl Lavender
Once on this Island Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book and Lyrics by Lynn Ahrens Music By Stephen Flaherty Based upon the Novel "My Love, My Love" by Rosa Guy Originally Directed and Choreographed on Broadway by Graciela Daniele Overview / Synopsis Once on This Island JR is the authorized young performer's edition of Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty's story of "two worlds, never meant to meet," where the power of love is proven to conquer the power of death - a lesson well told for generations to come. Once on This Island is an engaging, Caribbean-flavored musical set on an unnamed island in the French Antilles. The story of Ti Moune, a peasant girl who falls in love above her class, is told around a fire by a group of Caribbean peasants as they wait out a terrible storm. Once on This Island uses the tradition of storytelling to pass down history, values and insight from one generation to the next. The result is a lesson to be passed along for generations to come. With the gods looking over her, Ti Moune's journey of unrequited love comes to prove that the power of love is stronger than the power of death. Ti Moune's courage and spirit prove that love can withstand the storm, cross the Earth, and survive even in the face of death. With rhythms of the Caribbean Islands, this show will be a favorite of performers and audiences alike! The Broadway Junior Collection now offers this Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty score in an adapted format perfect for young performers! Audio Sampler - HL00113121 $10.00 ShowKit - HL09971751 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Actor's Scripts Piano/Vocal Score Director's Guide 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD Media Disc 30 Family Matters Booklets 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 09971753 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 09971752 - Director's Guide $100.00 09971754 - Actor's Script $10.00 09971757 - Actor's Script 10 Pak $75.00 09971755 - Performance/Accompaniment CD $75.00 09971756 - Choreography DVD $50.00 09971678 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 09971758 - Student Rehearsal CD 20 Pak $100.00 09971677 - Media Disc $10.00 00113121 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Prologue/We Dance [Storytellers] One Small Girl/Waiting for Life [Asaka, Erzulie, Papa Ge, Tonton, Mama, Ti Moune, Storytellers] And the Gods Heard Her Prayer/Rain [Asaka, Agwe, Erzulie, Papa Ge, Storytellers] Discovering Daniel/Pray [Storytellers, Ti Moune, Tonton, Mama, Gatekeeper, Peasants] Forever Yours [Ti Moune, Daniel, Papa Ge, Storytellers] Ti Moune [Ti Moune, Tonton, Mama] Mama Will Provide [Asaka, Storytellers] The Human Heart [Erzulie, Storytellers] Pray - Reprise/The Ball [Gossipers, Father, Storytellers, Andrea, Daniel] Ti Moune's Dance [Mama, Tonton, Little Ti Moune] Andrea Sequence [Andrea, Ti Moune] Promises/Forever Yours - Reprise [Papa Ge, Erzulie, Storytellers] Wedding Sequence [Storyteller (Asaka)] A Part of Us/Why We Tell the Story [Company] Bows/Exit Music [Orchestra] Little Girl/Little Ti Moune Little Girl/Little Ti Moune is the perfect role for a very young performer. This girl should be able to stay focused and listen. The role also requires some singing with the ensemble. Storytellers 1-4 Storytellers 1-4 are the four narrators that tell the story of Once on This Island Jr. They can be male or female. Not only do they sing the bulk of the show, but they also focus the audience's attention on important events throughout the production. These four roles are the true leads! Mama Euralie Mama Euralie is the symbolic mother of us all. She should possess a nice voice, and be a good actress. Be sure to audition Mama with Tonton as you will want to cast two people who perform well together, look like a couple and have stage chemistry. Tonton Julian Tonton Julian is the loving adopted father of Ti Moune. The actor who plays this role should have a nice voice, and be a good actor. It helps to cast a boy whose voice has changed, although not necessary. Ti Moune/Peasant Girl Ti Moune/Peasant Girl is the focus of our story and is featured in solo songs and dance. The actress performing this role should have an excellent voice and be an excellent dancer. The music Ti Moune sings is written in a pop style. Daniel Beauxhomme Daniel Beauxhomme is the male ingenue in Once on This Island Jr. Cast a young man who has a nice voice. Pair up potential Ti Mounes and Daniels at your final audition. Daniel's Son Daniel's Son is a very small walk-on part at the very end of the show. Cast a younger actor who resembles older Daniel. The actor need not sing and has no dialogue. The Gatekeeper The Gatekeeper has one scene. He should be impressive in size with a booming voice. Daniel's Father Daniel's Father is not sympathetic or understanding of his son's wishes, unlike Tonton Julian. This is a small role, requiring some singing and acting. Andrea Andrea is Daniel's beautiful fiancee. She is refined, educated and the exact opposite of Ti Moune. Papa Ge Papa Ge is the self-described "sly demon of death." The actor performing the role should have a nice voice and an evil laugh. Asaka Asaka is the Goddess of the Earth and sings one of the most popular and fun songs of the show, "Mama Will Provide." Cast an excellent singer who moves well and is capable of an earthy look. Agwe Agwe is the God of Water. He has a solo early in the show that requires an excellent voice ("Rain"). Cast an actor capable of singing the song. Erzulie Erzulie is the triumphant Goddess of Love. She should have a pretty voice that is compatible with a pop style of singing. Gossipers 1-7 Gossipers 1-7 are one-line features - a great place to cast performers who may not quite be ready for a larger role, but deserve a feature line or two. Choir of Storytellers Choir of Storytellers (who also play peasants, villagers, guests and grand hommes) is easily expandable to accommodate as many young people as necessary. Cast any young person with the desire to perform.
Seussical Jr. - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Music by Stephen Flaherty Lyrics by Lynn Ahrens Book by Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty Co-Conceived by Lynn Ahrens, Stephen Flaherty and Eric Idle Based on the works of Dr. Seuss Music Supervised, Adapted and Produced by Bryan Louiselle Overview / Synopsis After all those years being stuck on a page, Did you ever imagine you'd see me onstage?" So says the mischievous Cat in the Hat at the onset of this fantastical, magical, musical extravaganza! All of our favorite Dr. Seuss characters come to life in this delightful Seussian gumbo of musical styles, ranging from Latin to pop, swing to gospel, and R&B to funk! So let your toes tap, your fingers snap, and your imagination run wild for "Oh, the thinks you can think, when you think about Seuss!" Audio Sampler - HL00257760 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00257761 $695.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 Libretto/Vocal Books Piano/Vocal Score Director's Script 2 Performance/Accompaniment CDs Choreography DVD 30 Family Matters Booklets Production Handbook Cross-Curricular Book 60-Minute JR. Request Individual Components 00257751 - Director's Guide $100.00 00257752 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00257753 - Actor's Script $10.00 00257754 - Actor's Script 10-Pak $75.00 00257755 - Performance/Accompaniment CDs $75.00 00257756 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00257757 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-Pak $100.00 00257758 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00257759 - Media Disc $10.00 00257760 - Audio Sampler $10.00 Hear A Sample Oh, The Thinks You Can Think! Horton Hears a Who Biggest Blame Fool Biggest Blame Playoff / Gertrude McFuzz Here on Who Meet JoJo the Who How to Raise a Child Oh, The Thinks You Can Think! (Reprise) It's Possible (Pt. 1) It's Possible (Pt. 2) Alone in the Universe The One Feather Tail of Miss Gertrude McFuzz / Amayzing Mayzie Amayzing Gertrude (Pt. 1) Amayzing Gertrude (Pt. 2) Monkey Around / Chasing the Whos Notice Me, Horton How Lucky You Are Mayzie's Exit / Horton Sits on the Egg / Dilemma / Hunters Egg, Nest and Tree Sold / Mayzie in Palm Beach Mayzie at the Circus Amayzing Horton Alone in the Universe (Reprise) Solla Sollew Gertrude / Espionage (Pt. 1) Gertrude / Espionage (Pt. 2) All for You The Whos Return / The People Versus Horton the Elephant (Pt. 1) The People Versus Horton the Elephant (Pt. 2) Yopp! Alone in the Universe (Reprise) Oh, The Thinks You Can Think! (Finale) Green Eggs and Ham (Finale Bows) Exit Music The Cat in the Hat The Cat in the Hat is the essence of mischief, fun, and imagination. The Cat stirs things up, causes trouble, but always sets things right again, helping JoJo to discover the power of his own imagination as they create the story for the show together. Look for a physically adept actor (male or female) to play THE CAT, one who will be able to play many comic cameos and is comfortable improvising with an audience. The Cat does not need to be your strongest singer, but should still have good rhythm and timing. JoJo JoJo is a "Thinker", a smart child with a wild imagination. He can be played as being a little bit awkward, a little bit of a loner, or simply a rambunctious kid whose Thinks get him into constant trouble. By the end of the show, he learns what it means to be a responsible member of his world, using the power and possibilities of his own Thinks. He should be one of your stronger singers. Horton the Elephant Horton the Elephant is a gentle giant. Think of him as a big-hearted blue-collar guy who is steadfast, responsible and always tries to do the right thing for his friends. He is imaginative and receptive to the world around him. He is very unselfconscious. Horton's view of the world never changes - he believes in its goodness. By the end of the show, without even realizing it, he is ready to become a parent. Gertrude McFuzz Gertrude McFuzz is very self-conscious and aware that her one-feather tail isn't perfect. Gertrude changes during the show from a neurotic, nervous and shy bird into one with the power to protect and care for a baby elephant bird and commit herself to Horton. In other words, she stops worrying about her looks and grows up. Mayzie La Bird Mayzie La Bird is self-centered, selfish, and vain. Mayzie will never admit to her own flaws. She manipulates anyone she can into doing what she wants. But Mayzie isn't all bad. In giving up her egg to Horton once and for all, she has a moment of generosity: she realizes she isn't the kind of person who would be a good parent, and she does the best thing she can for the egg. Sour Kangaroo Sour Kangaroo isn't really sour at all. She's just got a lot of attitude. She's loud, brassy, and a lot of fun. The Wickersham Brothers The Wickersham Brothers are not bad guys! They're simply a lot like kids who tease, play pranks, and get a kick out of making mischief, although often at others' expense. They enjoy hanging around with one another, making music together on the street corner, and playing off on another. Encourage each of your actors to find their own Wickersham persona. The Whos The Whos are a lot like you and me, only so small as to be invisible. Don't think of them as weird little aliens. They should be played for their inherent humanity. Encourage everyone playing a Who to try and create his or her own unique character. Mr. and Mrs. Mayos Mr. and Mrs. Mayos are Whos who are parents trying hard to raise a difficult child in a difficult world. They may get aggravated with JOJO, but they love him dearly and try to do the right thing, even if it turns out to be a mistake. The Jungle Creatures The Jungle Creatures are real people at heart, just like us, even though they may be described as animal characters. We discourage masks and literal "animal costumes." Each student should be encouraged to create his or her own individual character with human characteristics.
Seussical Kids - Broadway Junior | Hal Leonard Menu LEARN MORE About Broadway Junior What Comes With the Showkit®? How to License a Broadway Junior Musical Order an Audio Sampler Frequently Asked Questions 60-Min.ute Musicals [JR.] 60-Minute Musicals 13 Jr. Alice In Wonderland Jr. (Disney) Aladdin Jr. (Disney) Annie Jr. Beauty and the Beast Jr. (Disney) The Big One-Oh! Jr. Bugsy Malone Jr. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Jr. Dear Edwina Jr. Doctor Dolittle Jr. Dot & The Kangaroo Jr. The Drowsy Chaperone Jr. Elf The Musical Jr. Fame Jr. Fiddler on the Roof Jr. Finding Nemo Jr. (Disney) Finian's Rainbow Jr. Flat Stanley Jr. Frozen Jr. (Disney) A Ghost Tale for Mr. Dickens Jr. (Magic Tree House) Godspell Jr. Guys and Dolls Jr. Hairspray Jr. High School Musical Jr. (Disney) Honk! Jr. Into the Woods Jr. James and the Giant Peach Jr. (Roald Dahl) Junie B. Jones Jr. Legally Blonde Jr. The Lion King Jr. (Disney) The Little Mermaid Jr. (Disney) Madagascar - A Musical Adventure Jr. Mary Poppins Jr. (Disney/Cameron Mackintosh) Matilda Jr. (Roald Dahl) Mean Girls Jr. Moana Jr. (Disney) The Music Man Jr. My Son Pinocchio Jr. (Disney) Newsies Jr. (Disney) Oliver! Jr. Once on This Island Jr. Peter Pan Jr. (Broadway) The Phantom Tollbooth Jr. The Pirates of Penzance Jr. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer Jr. Schoolhouse Rock Live! Jr. Seussical Jr. Shrek Jr. Singin' In The Rain Jr. Sister Act Jr. Thoroughly Modern Millie Jr. Willy Wonka Jr. (Roald Dahl) Xanadu Jr. 30-Min.ute Musicals [KIDS] 30-Minute Musicals 101 Dalmatians KIDS (Disney) Aladdin KIDS (Disney) Annie KIDS Aristocats KIDS (Disney) Dinosaurs Before Dark KIDS (Magic Tree House) Finding Nemo KIDS (Disney) Frozen KIDS (Disney) The Jungle Book KIDS (Disney) The Knight at Dawn KIDS (Magic Tree House) The Lion King KIDS (Disney) The Music Man KIDS Pirates Past Noon KIDS (Magic Tree House) Seussical KIDS Willy Wonka KIDS (Roald Dahl) Winnie the Pooh KIDS (Disney) A Year with Frog and Toad KIDS Product Information Musical Numbers Cast of Characters Credits Book by Lynn Ahrens, Stephen Flaherty Music by Stephen Flaherty Lyrics by Lynn Ahrens Co-Conceived by Lynn Ahrens, Stephen Flaherty, Eric Idle Based on the works of Dr. Seuss Overview / Synopsis Horton the Elephant, the Cat in the Hat, and all of your favorite Dr. Seuss characters spring to life onstage in Seussical KIDS, a fantastical musical extravaganza from Tony-winners, Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty (Lucky Stiff, My Favorite Year, Once on This Island, Ragtime). Transporting audiences from the Jungle of Nool to the Circus McGurkus, the Cat in the Hat, our narrator, tells the story of Horton, an elephant who discovers a speck of dust containing tiny people called the Whos, including Jojo, a Who child, who gets in trouble for thinking too many "thinks." Horton's challenge is twofold - not only must he protect the Whos from a world of naysayers and dangers, but he must also guard an abandoned egg that's been left in his care by the irresponsible Mayzie La Bird. Although Horton faces ridicule, danger, kidnapping and a trial, the intrepid Gertrude McFuzz never loses faith in him. Ultimately, the powers of friendship, loyalty, family and community are challenged and emerge triumphant! Seussical KIDS is great fun for the whole family. Young performers will be excited to portray the characters from the popular Dr. Seuss books. This musical provides wonderful creative opportunities in terms of set design, lighting and costuming and can easily accommodate a large cast. Audio Sampler - HL00160926 $10.00 ShowKit - HL00160916 $545.00 This ShowKit includes: 30 - Student Books 1 - Director's Guide 1 - Piano/Vocal Score 1 - Accompaniment CD 1 - Choreography DVD 1 - Media Disc 30-Minute KIDS Request Individual Components 00160917 - Director's Guide $100.00 00160918 - Piano/Vocal Score $40.00 00160919 - Student Book $10.00 00160920 - Student Book 10-pak $75.00 00160921 - Performance/Accomp CD pack $75.00 00160922 - Student Rehearsal CD $10.00 00160923 - Student Rehearsal CD 20-pak $100.00 00160924 - Choreography DVD $50.00 00160925 - Media Disc $10.00 Hear A Sample Oh, the Thinks You Can Think! [Full Cast] Horton Hears A Who [Horton] Here On Who [Mr. Mayor, Mrs. Mayor, Whos, Jojo, Horton] Oh, the Thinks You Can Think! (Reprise) [Cats, Jojo] It's Possible (Part 1) [Jojo, Cats, Fish] It's Possible (Part 2) [Jojo, Cats, Fish] Alone in the Universe [Horton, Jojo] The One Feather Tail of Miss Gertrude McFuzz [Gertrude] Monkey Around/Chasing the Whos [Cats, Wickershams, Jungle Citizens, Sour Kangaroo, Vlad Vladikoff] Horton Sits on the Egg/Dilemma [Jungle Citizens, Horton] Solla Sollew [Horton, Jungle Citizens] The Whos Return [Horton, Gertrude, Whos, Wickershams, Sour Kangaroo] Yopp! [Sour Kangaroo, Young Kangaroo, Cats, Mr. Mayor, Mrs. Mayor] Oh, the Thinks You Can Think! (Finale) [Full Cast] Green Eggs and Ham (Bows) [Full Cast] Jojo Jojo is the audience's link to the story. The audience follows the narrative through his eyes (he's also referred to as Child), so it's most important to cast a young man with an earnest and open disposition. He should be a great singer and actor. Gender: Male Vocal Range: B3-Db5 The Cats The Cats (Cat 1, Cat 2, Cat 3) are mischievous, spirited creatures who take JoJo and the audience on quite an adventure. Cast three actors, male or female, with great singing chops and who can move well. Since the Cats take on different roles throughout the play, these actors should be bold, versatile and able to switch roles at the drop of a dime. Gender: Both Vocal Range: Bb3-D5 Horton Horton is a loveable elephant with a heart of gold. Cast a young performer who can sing well and convey great loyalty and conviction to the Whos. Gender: Male Vocal Range: Ab3-E5 Mr. Mayor Mr. Mayor is the mayor of Whoville and the perfect picture of patriarchy. He tries to keep the town happy and secure, which is quite a job since the tiny Whos are always in danger of being swept away and lost. Cast a young man who can portray an older age and a sense of authority. Mr. Mayor has a few featured lines sung with Mrs. Mayor, so it's great if the two actors' voices work well together Gender: Male Mrs. Mayor Mrs. Mayor is the mayor's wife and is most concerned with trying to make sure her son, JoJo, stays in line. Cast a fine singer and actor complementary of Mr. Mayor and JoJo, whose voice blends well with Mr. Mayor. Gender: Both Gertrude McFuzz Gertrude McFuzz is a bird with tail envy! Cast a great performer who can sing, act and is a perfect match for Horton. Gender: Female Vocal Range: G3-C5 Mayzie LaBird Mayzie LaBird is a sneaky bird who tricks Horton into helping her take care of her egg. Cast a young woman who can express a fun, jovial and careless spirit. Gender: Both Vocal Range: Bb3-D4 Sour Kangaroo Sour Kangaroo is as sour as a kangaroo can be. Cast a young woman who can sing and act well and can serve up a good deal of attitude. The two kangaroos should function well as a pair. Gender: Female Vocal Range: C4-Db5 Young Kangaroo Feel free to cast a younger performer in the role of Young Kangaroo, who could be played by a boy or girl. The two kangaroos should function well as a pair. Gender: Both Wickersham Brothers Wickersham Brothers (Wickersham 1, Wickersham 2, Wickersham 3) are a trio of trouble-making monkeys! Cast three boys or girls who can make strong physical choices, complement one another well and bring a strong, diverse energy to their mischief. Wickersham 3 has mostly solos that aren't sung, so make sure that actor has great diction and a strong sense of rhythm. Gender: Male Vocal Range: A3-E4 Judge Yertle Judge Yertle the turtle presides over Horton's court proceedings. This is a fun role for a performer who can make strong acting choices. Gender: Both Vlad Vladikoff Vlad Vladikoff is an eagle who drops Whoville into a field of clovers! Cast a young performer who has a great sense of comedy and can make strong acting choices in this fun cameo role. Gender: Both Ensemble The Whos, Jungle Citizens (1-5), Fish, the Wickershams, the Talk Show Hostand Marshal are all essential roles for creating the vivid and imaginative world of Seuss. Each creature or person should embody the characters with bold choices and a strong connection to the rest of the players. Gender: Both
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Brass & Woodwinds Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR BRASS & WOODWINDS EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert B-flat version) 185. Theme From Symphony No. 1 - Solo (Concert E-flat version) 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 Play-Along Accompaniments For Percussion Exercises 59 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 1 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR PERCUSSION EXERCISES 59 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired group and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 059. Fit To Be Tied 060. Alouette 061. Alouette - The Sequel 062. Camptown Races 063. New Directions 064. The Nobles 065. Essential Elements Quiz 066. Rhythm Rap 067. Three Beat Jam 068. Barcarolle 069. Morning (from Peer Gynt) 070. Accent Your Talent 071. Mexican Clapping Song ("Chiapanecas") 072. Essential Creativity 073. Hot Muffins 074. Cossack Dance 075. Basic Blues 076. High Flying 077. Sakura, Sakura - Band Arrangement 078. Up On A Housetop 079. Jolly Old St. Nick - Duet 080. The Big Airstream 081. Waltz Theme 082. Air Time 083. Down By The Station 084. Essential Elements Quiz 085. Essential Creativity 086. Tone Builder 087. Rhythm Builder 088. Technique Trax 089. Chorale 090. Variations On A Familiar Theme 091. Banana Boat Song 092. Razor's Edge 093. The Music Box 094. Ezekiel Saw The Wheel 095. Smooth Operator 096. Gliding Along 097. Trombone Rag 098. Essential Elements Quiz 099. Take The Lead 100. The Cold Wind 101. Phraseology 102. Satin Latin 103. Minuet - Duet 104. Essential Creativity 105. Naturally 106. March Militaire 107. The Flat Zone 108. On Top Of Old Smokey 109. Bottom Bass Boogie - Duet 110. Rhythm Rap 111. The Dot Always Counts 112. All Through The Night 113. Sea Chanty 114. Scarborough Fair 115. Rhythm Rap 116. The Turnaround 117. Essential Elements Quiz - Auld Lang Syne 118. Hungarian Dance No. 5 - Snare Drum Solo 118. Theme From "New World Symphony" 119. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 1 120. Jumpin' Up And Down 121. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 2 122. Jumpin' For Joy 123. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 3 124. Jumpin' Jacks 125. Essential Elements Quiz 126. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 4 127. Three Is The Count 128. Grenadilla Gorilla Jump No. 5 129. Technique Trax 130. Crossing Over 131. Kum Bah Yah - Trio 132. Michael Row The Boat Ashore 133. Austrian Waltz 134. Botany Bay 135. Technique Trax 136. Finlandia 137. Essential Creativity 138. Easy Gorilla Jumps 139. Technique Trax 140. More Technique Trax 141. German Folk Song 142. The Saints Go Marchin' Again 143. Lowland Gorilla Walk 144. Smooth Sailing 145. More Gorilla Jumps 146. Full Coverage 147. Concert B-flat Scale 148. In Harmony 149. Scale And Arpeggio 150. Theme From "Surprise Symphony" 151. Essential Elements Quiz - The Streets Of Laredo 152. School Spirit - Band Arrangement 153. Carnival Of Venice - Band Arrangement 154. Range And Flexibility Builder 155. Technique Trax 156. Chorale 157. Hatikvah 158. Rhythm Rap 159. Eighth Note March 160. Minuet 161. Rhythm Rap 162. Eighth Notes Off The Beat 163. Eighth Note Scramble 164. Essential Elements Quiz 165. Dancing Melody 166. El Capitan 167. O Canada 168. Essential Elements Quiz - Meter Mania 169. Snake Charmer 170. Dark Shadows 171. Close Encounters 172. March Slav 173. Notes In Disguise 174. Half-Steppin' 175. Egyptian Dance 176. Silver Moon Boat 177. Theme From Symphony No. 7 - Duet 178. Capriccio Italien 179. American Patrol 180. Wayfaring Stranger 181. Essential Elements Quiz - Scale Counting Conquest 182. America The Beautiful - Band Arrangement 183. La Cucaracha - Band Arrangement 184. Theme From 1812 Overture - Band Arrangement 185. Can-Can 186. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Duet 187. La Bamba - Duet Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert B-flat #4 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #1 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #2 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #3 Page 40 Rubank - Key of Concert E-flat #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert F #4 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #1 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #2 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #3 Page 41 Rubank - Key of Concert A-flat #4 Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 4/4; Measures 1-56 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 3/4; Measures 57-64 Fast tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Slow tempo Pages 42-43 Rhythm Studies in 2/4; Measures 65-72 Fast tempo Hal Leonard Online - EE2000
EE2000 | Hal Leonard Hal Leonard Classical Hal Leonard Online - EE2000 Essential Elements 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 2 Play-Along Accompaniments For Percussion Exercises 56 - end (Individual MP3 files) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired track and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 056. Warm-up Chorale 057. The Thunderer - Band Arrangement 058. Hill and Gully Rider - Band Arrangement 059. Shenandoah - Band Arrangement 060. Las Mananitas - Band Arrangement 061. Rondeau - Band Arrangement 062. Rock.com - Encore Band Arrangement 063. Rhythm Rap 064. Sixteenth Variatons 065. Sea Chantey 066. American Fanfare 067. Scale Study 068. Bill Bailey 069. Rhythm Rap 070. Rhythm Etude 071. Battle Stations 072. English Dance 073. Big Rock Candy Mountain 074. Essential Elements Quiz 075. Simple Song - Duet 076. Line Dance 077. Technique Trax 078. The Galway Piper 079. Manhattan Beach March 080. Sightreading Challenge 081. Rhythm Rap 082. Marching Along 083. Fanfare for Band - Trio 084. O Tannenbaum 085. S'Vivon 086. Good King Wenceslas 087. Tone Builder 088. Flexibility Study 089. Technique Trax 090. Chorale 091. Toreador Song (from Carmen) 092. La Cumparisita 093. The Yellow Rose of Texas 094. Scale Study 095. Advance Australia Fair 096. Essential Creativity 097. American Patrol 098. Aria (from Marriage of Figaro) 099. The Stars and Stripes Forever 100. Sightreading Challenge 101. Rhythm Rap 102. Lazy Day 103. Row Your Boat 104. Jolly Good Fellow 105. Chanson 106. EE Quiz: When Johnny Comes Marching Home 107. Chromatic Scale 108. Technique Trax 109. Habanera (from Carmen) 110. Chromatic Crescendo 111. Turkish March (from The Ruins of Athens) 112. The Overlander 113. Staccato Study 114. Yankee Doodle Dandy 115. Sightreading Challenge 116. Rhythm Rap 117. Three To Get Ready 118. Triplet Study 119. March (from The Nutcracker) - Duet 120. EE Quiz - Theme from Faust 121. Scale Study 122. Over the River and Through the Woods 123. Rhythm Rap 124. On the Move 125. Higher Ground 126. EE Quiz 127. The Marine's Hymn 128. D.S. March 129. Can-Can 130. Tarantella 131. Emperor Waltz 132. English Dance - Duet 133. EE Quiz - British Grenadiers 134. Nassau Bound 135. Unfinished Symphony Theme 136. Rhythm Study 137. Country Gardens 138. Joshua 139. Listen to the Mockingbird 140. Anchors Aweigh 141. Greensleeves 142. The Long Climb 143. The Blue Bells of Scotland 144. Natural Minor Scale 145. Finale from "New World Symphony" 146. Harmonic Minor Scale 147. Hungarian Dance No. 5 148. Pomp and Circumstance 149. Simple Gifts - Band Arrangement 150. Semper Fidelis - Band Arrangement 151. Danny Boy - Band Arrangement 152. Take Me Out To The Ball Game - Band Arrangement 153. Serengeti (African Rhapsody) - Band Arrangement 154. Rubank Studies - Chorale 155. Rubank Studies - Chorale 156. Rubank Studies - Chorale 157. Rubank Studies - Chorale 158. Rubank Studies - Chorale 159. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 160. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 161. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 162. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 163. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 164. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 165. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 166. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 167. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 168. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 169. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 170. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 171. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 172. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 173. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 174. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 175. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 176. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 177. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 178. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 179. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 180. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 181. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 182. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 183. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 184. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 185. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 186. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 187. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Fast tempo 188. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Slow tempo 189. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Fast tempo 190. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Slow tempo 191. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Fast tempo 192. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Slow tempo 193. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Fast tempo 194. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Slow tempo 195. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Fast tempo 196. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Slow tempo 197. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Fast tempo 198. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Slow tempo ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 FOR BAND, BOOK 2 PLAY-ALONG ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR PERCUSSION EXERCISES 56 - END (INDIVIDUAL MP3 FILES) To download, "right-click" (Windows) or "control-click" (Mac) on the desired group and choose to save/download the "linked file" in the pop-up menu. 056. Warm-up Chorale 057. The Thunderer - Band Arrangement 058. Hill and Gully Rider - Band Arrangement 059. Shenandoah - Band Arrangement 060. Las Mananitas - Band Arrangement 061. Rondeau - Band Arrangement 062. Rock.com - Encore Band Arrangement 063. Rhythm Rap 064. Sixteenth Variatons 065. Sea Chantey 066. American Fanfare 067. Scale Study 068. Bill Bailey 069. Rhythm Rap 070. Rhythm Etude 071. Battle Stations 072. English Dance 073. Big Rock Candy Mountain 074. Essential Elements Quiz 075. Simple Song - Duet 076. Line Dance 077. Technique Trax 078. The Galway Piper 079. Manhattan Beach March 080. Sightreading Challenge 081. Rhythm Rap 082. Marching Along 083. Fanfare for Band - Trio 084. O Tannenbaum 085. S'Vivon 086. Good King Wenceslas 087. Tone Builder 088. Flexibility Study 089. Technique Trax 090. Chorale 091. Toreador Song (from Carmen) 092. La Cumparisita 093. The Yellow Rose of Texas 094. Scale Study 095. Advance Australia Fair 096. Essential Creativity 097. American Patrol 098. Aria (from Marriage of Figaro) 099. The Stars and Stripes Forever 100. Sightreading Challenge 101. Rhythm Rap 102. Lazy Day 103. Row Your Boat 104. Jolly Good Fellow 105. Chanson 106. EE Quiz: When Johnny Comes Marching Home 107. Chromatic Scale 108. Technique Trax 109. Habanera (from Carmen) 110. Chromatic Crescendo 111. Turkish March (from The Ruins of Athens) 112. The Overlander 113. Staccato Study 114. Yankee Doodle Dandy 115. Sightreading Challenge 116. Rhythm Rap 117. Three To Get Ready 118. Triplet Study 119. March (from The Nutcracker) - Duet 120. EE Quiz - Theme from Faust 121. Scale Study 122. Over the River and Through the Woods 123. Rhythm Rap 124. On the Move 125. Higher Ground 126. EE Quiz 127. The Marine's Hymn 128. D.S. March 129. Can-Can 130. Tarantella 131. Emperor Waltz 132. English Dance - Duet 133. EE Quiz - British Grenadiers 134. Nassau Bound 135. Unfinished Symphony Theme 136. Rhythm Study 137. Country Gardens 138. Joshua 139. Listen to the Mockingbird 140. Anchors Aweigh 141. Greensleeves 142. The Long Climb 143. The Blue Bells of Scotland 144. Natural Minor Scale 145. Finale from "New World Symphony" 146. Harmonic Minor Scale 147. Hungarian Dance No. 5 148. Pomp and Circumstance 149. Simple Gifts - Band Arrangement 150. Semper Fidelis - Band Arrangement 151. Danny Boy - Band Arrangement 152. Take Me Out To The Ball Game - Band Arrangement 153. Serengeti (African Rhapsody) - Band Arrangement 154. Rubank Studies - Chorale 155. Rubank Studies - Chorale 156. Rubank Studies - Chorale 157. Rubank Studies - Chorale 158. Rubank Studies - Chorale 159. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 160. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 161. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 162. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Bb 163. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 164. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 165. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 166. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Eb 167. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 168. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 169. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 170. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert F 171. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 172. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 173. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 174. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert Ab 175. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 176. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 177. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 178. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C 179. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 180. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert G Minor 181. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 182. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert C Minor 183. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 184. Rubank Studies - Key of Concert D Minor 185. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 186. Rubank Studies - Chromatic Scales 187. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Fast tempo 188. Rhythm Studies - mm 1-12 in 4/4, Slow tempo 189. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Fast tempo 190. Rhythm Studies - mm 13-40 in 4/4, Slow tempo 191. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Fast tempo 192. Rhythm Studies - mm 41-52 in 3/4, Slow tempo 193. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Fast tempo 194. Rhythm Studies - mm 53-64 in 2/4, Slow tempo 195. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Fast tempo 196. Rhythm Studies - mm 65-72 in Cut-time, Slow tempo 197. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Fast tempo 198. Rhythm Studies - mm 73-80 in 6/8, Slow tempo
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